Whooping cough

Whooping cough

Description of whooping cough

In our country, thanks to vaccination succeeded in nearly eradicating whooping cough. The problem is the increase of immigrants mostly from the eastern hemisphere, where it is not mature child health, and who used to plague imported. However, it is a widespread disease worldwide, which on rare occasions can also affect adults. It occurs mainly in autumn and winter months. Whooping cough was in earlier times a feared child diseases, which the majority of infected ended fatally – suffocation. Whooping cough is highly contagious and is transmitted by droplet infection, or when you sneeze, sneezes and coughs. Every year the world caught about 60 million infected and that 350,000, mostly children, die.

The fact that far from being a disease eradication, can be found on pages of the Public Health Institute .

Is caused by a bacterium Bordetella pertussis. The microscope will appear immobile short stick. A single host in the wild for her human rights. It has the unique ability to colonize exclusively airways, which are lined with special cells with cilia. Cilia movement is important to purify the airways. Cells produce secretions thereon are recorded contaminants from the inhaled air and vibration cilia move secretions with impurities up to the mouth, where it is expectoration. This mechanism keeps breathing passages. If bacteria in the airways of infants or children, fixing it occurs in the body affected a number of specific answers. Systemic manifestations of the disease, those that occur outside the airways, are evident in distant organs when bacteria already in řasinkách cells in the airways are absent. The presence of the bacteria might not be such a problem, our bodies inside and outside inhabited by hundreds of species of bacteria. The problem is that bacteria will settle quickly multiply and block the function of cilia. Bordetella also produces harmful substance called. Pertussis toxin specific poison. It does not penetrate into the blood, but it has local serious consequences. Especially irritating to the airway mucosa, causes catarrhal symptoms and increases the number of white blood cells at the site of settlement, thus in the trachea and small bronchi. Toxin has even more side effects and that amplifies the action of certain hormones. Causes of low blood sugar and boosts throughput thinnest and smallest blood vessels, called. Capillaries.Higher throughput leads to leakage of fluid out of the vasculature and to facilitate formation of edema and shock from leakage of fluid from the circulation system. Boosts also sensitivity to histamine, a substance which is responsible for the contraction of smooth muscle of bronchial wall.It is impossible exhalation is easier to suffocation.

Symptoms of whooping cough

The most frequent occurrence of the disease is between 3 to 5 years of age. The time from infection to onset of symptoms of the disease, ie., The incubation period is at pertussis about a week to 14 days. Disease begins an uncharacteristic cough, it is the first stage, which can be influenced by antibiotic treatment. The second stage started between the second and third week and is characterized by binge cough, typical of this disease. The child has a seizure repeated coughing,during a seizure can not breathe. Cough may be terminated by either kokrhavým gasp, or a child is so irritated strenuous exertion until rozzvrací. The condition is accompanied by a lack of breath and bluish color to the lips from lack of oxygen in the blood. Amounts of seizures counts into the tens during the day, more often occur at night and baby nevykašlává too much mucus. This stage lasts for 4-8 weeks. If the disease is complicated not present fever. The last stage is theconvalescent child recovers, coughing disappears. After suffering a black cough immunity remains.Similar diseases such as Bordetella pertussis causes can mimic and her colleague Bordetella parapertussis.

Treatment of whooping cough

In the early stage, the doctor gives special liquid composed of antibodies against pertussis. The process is especially suitable for children under two years of age. Early antibiotic treatment prevents the development of the first stage in the second and significantly reduce the infectivity of a child for the rest of the family team. Child with suspected whooping cough is always in a hospital and monitored, must be isolated and be able to humidify the air. Pneumonia is eliminated by X-ray.

Today, under compulsory vaccinations administered the hexa from the 13th week of age, in three doses. Last injects the latest child between 3 to 4 a month after the first dose. If you become ill infants who can not cough, phlegm build-out of their airway suction. After recovering child can be put down again into the team after two control samples that come out of the laboratory results were negative.

Complications of whooping cough

There are a few that make it difficult for both prevention and treatment. In the foreground stands complications very easy transfer of droplets which are in children’s collectives easiest way to spread disease. Infants up to 5 months of age ends disease in 70% lethal. Moments during a coughing fit when the child is not breathing, so called. Apnea causes a bluish color of the child and can lead to convulsions, whose cause is little oxygen in the brain. Lack of oxygen to the brain tissue may function brain damage, resulting in various neurological disorders. The bronchi occurs after settlement of mucosal bacteria to mucosal necrosis and inflammation are created around the bronchial wall, which may end up with pneumonia. During strong coughing fits he described the emergence of umbilical hernias, especially in neonates. Strong seizures may also resulting in cracking small blood vessels in the eye and bleeding of the conjunctiva, which is absorbed during the recovery phase. There are also swelling of the lower eyelid. Bronchial mucosa is damaged, making it easier to be caught on it other species of bacteria which then complicate the course of whooping cough and may cause especially severe lung damage than would be the case only in very whooping cough infection.

During pregnancy transgress different antibodies from the mother’s blood and the blood of the fetus and protects it. However antibodies against pertussis through the placenta worse, because they are already vulnerable children soon after birth.

Currently being considered for re-vaccination of children aged 10 years, between 10 to 15 year recently appeared higher incidence of pertussis. There is a view that around the 10th year of declining antibodies that are created during the vaccination when the child is still an infant. The problem is unrecognized carriage adults. For them, the infection usually takes place under a picture of bronchitis, cough and its complications, and the characters are so strongly expressed, adults die of whooping cough. Therefore, the pertussis many times they do not even think people doctor in many cases do not seek. Anyway, should not underestimate the long-standing persistent cough and a doctor visit.

Prevention of pertussis

Prevention is regular vaccination compliance. If a child is sick, coughing, is good to visit the pediatrician. Not every repeated bouts of coughing should immediately mean whooping cough.Attention should be increased when the cough deepens and is associated with a sound like a rooster crowing. At that moment, the child should already be hospitalized and subsequent donations should determine whether the pertussis vaccine. In the first stage, the cough is uncharacteristic, but if the cough begins to emerge at night, and his character reminds you of the features described above, immediately take the child to the emergency room and describe the symptoms, do not forget to bring your vaccination certificate. Currently, so-called seeded. Hexa means that in one application child gets protection against six diseases that could end fatal to a child. They include diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis B, a disease caused by inavzivní Haemofilem influenza type b (causes inflammation of the epiglottis and its severe swelling, the child would suffocate) and polio, which also ends suffocation from paralysis of the respiratory muscles.Prevention concerns the behavior of mothers. With newborns to six weeks really would not visit shopping centers, large family gatherings and crowded public transport ride.

Other names: Whooping cough, Pertussis

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