Tumors of the uterus

Tumors of the uterus

Description uterine tumors

The uterus is located in a small saucepan. It consists of the uterine corpus, cervix and isthmus that connects them. Tumors of the uterus can distinguish tumors such as cervical cancer and uterine body. They differ in incidence, vulnerable groups of women, risk factors, treatment and prognosis.Although occurring in one cavity, ie a completely different tumors.

Tumors of the uterine body

Tumors of the uterine body divided into benign and malignant. Of the benign tumors are the most common leiomyoma. Of the most common malignant tumors are carcinomas with incidence of 98%, sarcomas occupy only 2% of all cancers of the uterus.

Benign tumors of the uterine body

Endometrial polyp formed local tissue hypertrophy. It occurs most frequently in women between 40 and 50 years. The symptom is abnormal bleeding.

Leiomyoma is the most common cancer of the uterine body. It occurs in about 40% of women between 30 and 50 years. It is a hormone-dependent tumor. After menopause or hormonal treatment fibroids regress. Migration risk in cancer is almost negligible. Clinically, it manifests depending on the application and size. According to the localization of the uterine wall with submucosal fibroids distinguished (submucosal), intramural (in the wall), subserosal (under the membrane that covers the surface of the uterus and other abdominal organs). Most often themselves can know fibroid bleeding. Even small fibroids can cause very dangerous bleeding. Fibroids can cause problems getting pregnant and during pregnancy, when their growth accelerates.

Subserosal fibroids can be manifest as the oppression of some organs. For example, when pressure on the bladder causes problems with urination. When pressure on the colon or rectum woman will have problems with emptying. Diagnoses are mostly gynecological examination, palpation, sonography and hysteroscopy. Therapy with distinction depending on whether the woman wishes to become pregnant. If yes, it should be treated conservatively and surgically removes only the fibroid. Fibroid can also be allowed to die methods, when embolizes afferent vein. Before surgery can shrink fibroids applications hormones. After repeated heavy bleeding, the woman had had a child does not want to elect a hysterectomy (hysterectomy).

Malignant tumors of the uterine body

At present in the Czech Republic, cancer incidence is about 34 cases per 100,000 women. Mortality is about 7 per 100,000 women. Thanks to this favorable ratio between total mortality and incidence of these tumors are classified to those “more worthy”. However, like any cancer and all diseases, it has many forms and each woman’s individual progress. The tumor occurs most frequently in the sixth and seventh decade of life. The prognosis is relatively favorable. Five years currently in nepokročilých stages cancer survive 85% of women.

Endometrial cancer arises from the glandular cells of the endometrium, most frequently in the fundus (upper body region) of the uterus. Histopathologically distinguishes several forms. The most common and least insidious cancer is endomeroidní. Serous papillary carcinomas and clear cell carcinomas are more aggressive, less treatable and generally have a worse prognosis.

Carcinoma usually able to diagnose the stage without distant metastases limited to the uterus. First spread to a depth of the uterus wall. Furthermore, it tends to grow into the cervix. Lymph spread to draining pelvic lymph nodes. Blood propagation is not uncommon, if it happens, will appear metastases in the lungs, liver and bones.

Risk factors for endometrial cancer

The main risk factors for endometrial cancer include:
older age, obesity, higher intake of animal fat, late menopause, nuliparita (no delivery), ovarian disorders, diabetes mellitus, hormonally active tumors of the ovary, immunosuppressive conditions.

Part of endometrial cancer develops from precancerous.

It is a precancerous condition that prevents cancer and according to various other risk factors tend to go to him over time. Precanceroses of cancer distinguish between the two. First is typical hyperestrinizmus, whether relative or absolute excess estrogen. These include conditions associated with anovulatory cycles, polycystic ovarian syndrome, obesity. This leads to hypertrophy of the endometrium, which over time may alter the cells and become atypical. Carcinoma arising on this basis usually occur sooner, not so invasive, it occurs in younger women and has a better prognosis.

The second precancerosis contrast atrophic endometrium, typically occurring in older postmenopausal women. Thus arising carcinoma is invasive, metastasize earlier and its prognosis is worse.

Another risk factor for endometrial cancer is Lynch syndrome, genetic syndrome associated with the formation of non-polyposis colon cancer, in which the lifetime risk of developing cancer of 40%.

Symptoms of uterine carcinomas

The reason for the early diagnosis of malignant tumor is practically his only sign of bleeding. They may have varying levels of intensity, from mild spotting after heavy bleeding. That most women will soon notify you that something is wrong. Less often appears watery to bloody discharge. Rarely highlights the growing tumor pain. This symptom is usually late and points already in advanced disease.

Diagnosis uterine carcinomas

A woman who comes with a suspected tumor of the uterus, a gynecologist first examined by palpation, colposcopy and cytology removed. Followed by ultrasound and then either hysteroscopy with targeted biopsy or curettage of the neck and body of the uterus. If the diagnosis confirms follows snapshot lung, bladder endoscopy, ultrasound focused on the tumor. According stages of the disease can also perform further tests to determine the penetration of the tumor or distant metastasis.

Treatment of cancer of the uterus

Standard treatment of this type of tumor is surgical treatment. For cancer is so very important.Grade tumor – differentiation (degree of maturity) cells. According to these distinguished Low and High risk (low and high risk types) tumors. It is also important if the tumor penetrates the muscle of the uterus and how far.

U Low risk tumors and tumors that do not cross farther than half the muscle of the uterus in patients performed simple hysterectomy, hysterectomy with removal of lymph nodes.

For patients with high risk tumors and tumors that exceed half the width of the wall of the uterus, in addition to the uterus, lymph nodes are removed and bilateral appendages (ovaries and fallopian tubes).

In high-risk patients to opt for a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. Radiotherapy is also treated relapse. Hormone treatment is given at advanced stages of cancer and recurrences. Administered progesterone.

endometrial sarcomas

Endometrial stromal sarcoma accounts for about 20% of all sarcomas of the uterine body. A distinction is again low and high risk tumors. It is treated by hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy. The prognosis is generally worse than in carcinomas. For high risk tumors in 5-30% of patients does not show the disease within five years after treatment, with low risk is that 80% of patients.

Leiomyosarcomas occupy about 1% of all cancers of the body. The emergence of benign fibroids has not been confirmed. The treatment is the same as other sarcomas. The prognosis is unfavorable. Five year survival of 45% of patients.

Prevention of endometrial sarcoma

Protect themselves against endometrial cancer is mainly regular visits to the gynecologist. When an obscure bleeding outside the menstrual cycle is necessary to consult with your gynecologist.Women with Lynch syndrome are monitored more frequently.

How do you help yourself

It is possible to reduce the risk of cancer in that woman limiting the presence of risk factors. So willlive healthy, avoid overeating. To include fiber diet and reducing animal fats. For endometrial cancer are also worth a combined hormonal contraceptives. Although it is not entirely clear on what principle actually prevents cancer, but it is so.

Other names: Tumors of the uterine body

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