Description of stroke

Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is an acute disease that occurs during nerve damage persisting for 24 hours or more. Stroke is caused by the interruption of blood supply to some parts of the brain. Interruption of the supply of oxygenated blood to the brain is 80% on the basis of a thrombus (or embolus) which clogs the vessel. In other cases, bleeding occurs in the brain rupture the weakened vessel or a combination of these phenomena.

If neurological symptoms are the same as for stroke subside within 24 hours it is called. Transient ischemic attack (TIA).Damage is persistent, and CT (Computed Tomography), the MoA confirm the presence of smaller infarct brain tissue.

Stroke disease is characterized by its symptoms, which leads tomotor and sensory disturbances.

The subsequent recovery of the patient depends on the extent of brain damage, delay in treatment and follow up care and rehabilitation. In many cases, even though it may be a complete cure. On the other hand, it is still a frequent cause of death – shows a 20% mortality within the first month of the incident. Also, because the stroke patient can undergo repeatedly as acute myocardial infarction. The statistics also indicate that fully recovers to 40% of patients.


Risk factors for stroke

Definitely in this disease, we can say that the risk increases with age. Certainly it is possible that the stroke is not sick child. In the childhood often leads to permanent paralysis (plegiím). We have to take into account family history and gender, because men are at higher risk regardless of age and in proportion – male: female = 1.5: 1.

Another, while the main risk factor is high blood pressure (hypertension). If a person has a tendency to atherosclerosis (narrowing of blood vessels fat accumulation) occurs, then the brain is clogged sclerotic arteries (constricted blood vessel) completely closing or releasing the fat from another vessel (usually the heart) and he arrives at the brain and blood vessel blockage.

Let us also not forget the diseases that belong to risk groups for the disease. These includediabetes (diabetes mellitus) and increased levels of fats in the body (hyperlipidemia).

And of course, we include and smoking (a risk factor for many diseases – atherosclerosis, hypertension etc., which with stroke are closely related).

Another risk may be congenital malformations of cerebral vessels. Stroke at a younger age is often associated with leukemia, infectious diseases or intoxication (overdose – alcohol, drugs or medication).


Prevention of stroke

The main cause of stroke is usually atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries or blood vessels clogged by deposits of fat and other substances). Prevention is therefore aimed at eliminating the causes of atherosclerosis and maintenance after its outbreak.

Basic prevention is provided diet restriction of animal fats, salt and cholesterol. It is important to your daily meals include more fruits, vegetables, whole grains and legumes.

Another goal is the prevention of weight maintenance is recommended active lifestyle.

It is recommended to quit smoking. Smoking is generally harmful to our health, but atherosclerosis is up to twice increase the likelihood of disease stroke.

Another factor is high blood pressure that is needed with increasing age (from at least 50 years of age), check with a doctor and try to follow his recommendation or take drugs. High blood pressure is one of the most common causes of many diseases.


Signs and symptoms of stroke

Stroke can have a lot of speeches, which are mostly neurological origin, but 5% occurs as asymptomatic (without symptoms). It always depends on the area of the brain that is damaged.

If you’re in the presence of a man who had just suffered a stroke, you’ll know it from most cases at a glance. The characteristic is that the patient looks like it was outside of myself, Confused, adrooping corner and tongue to one side of his mouth. They may spontaneously ooze saliva drooping corner of the mouth.

It has a language disorder – can not properly articulate when he’ll at least understand a little, will complain that one eye and will not be able to move one-half of the body.

Can be completely still and move only the eyes (or one eye), and see and hear what is happening around, but can not speak or give you a clue as to what he is.

When a stroke often appear so. Paresis (paralysis, paresis) or so. Plegia (total paralysis, polio, complete loss of momentum). It is characteristic that even paresis plegia always occur at one half of the body (right or left), and is always on the other side than the cerebral hemisphere, where damage to the brain tissue.

Sometimes after stroke also occurs sensory loss – hypoesthesia.

The patient also has a problem with coordination of movements, orientation in time and place, can not express the idea (not the right word). In severe stroke occurs even loss of consciousness and death – a disorder centers, which are important for basic life functions and edema (swelling) of the brain.

When the lighter form of stroke the patient may experience only a headache and dizziness, can also cause vomiting. Also, patients complain of blurred or double vision.

For doctors to diagnose is particularly important history. Whether a patient has high blood pressure and diabetes, as well as family history, symptoms of atherosclerosis and other types of vascular diseases. Followed simple neurological examination – e.g. patient gripping by both hands and squeezed so that both – at a stroke, as already mentioned, occurs parézám plegiím and, therefore, is often a noticeable difference in the strength of handshake.

A more detailed diagnosis is further performed in a hospital by CT (Computed Tomography), which may be supplemented MNR (magentickou resonance). From these tests will then determine the size of brain damage, whether it is an ischemia or bleeding and prognosis of the patient’s treatment.


Treatment of stroke

Every patient diagnosed with stroke to be hospitalized – this is a serious illness with many complications. Treatment of stroke is long and difficult, because in most cases they are extensive damage.

Patients are placed in intensive care units (ICU), where they are provided basic life functions (blood circulation and respiration) and given drugs to promote blood circulation and brain tissue to reduce swelling of the brain. These drugs are mainly substances to dissolve a blood clot in a blood vessel of the brain that cause cerebrovascular caused or, conversely, to stop the bleeding. If it is a massive bleeding, which is surgically accessed, it is necessary to operate and stop the bleeding.

Another important part of treatment is rehabilitation, since a large percentage of patients with this disease lose self-sufficiency. Therefore already in intensive intensive care begins with positioning the patient and a simple exercise to the already sagging muscles do not lose muscle mass.

Most patients have to relearn tasks of daily life. They must again learn to speak, walk, write, personal hygiene and rest. When a lot of severe stages of the disease and the patient through rehabilitation dependent on the help of others, since limb paralysis is irreversible or only partially retreats. A related disorder of speech, thought and vision.

A very important role in treating the patient plays a proactive approach, some patients their indomitable optimism and effort can change the seemingly unchangeable difficult situation.Therefore, it is important to support the activity of ill – health is motivating.

Cerebral palsy is not a disease whose consequences will be improved to the normal state overnight.They are usually long weeks to months diligent work of patient care and its surroundings.Motivation is very important, therefore, we must be patient and praise only for healthy people normal things – keeping the cup, the first new steps independently to dress or to walk to the toilet.However, it is necessary to bear in mind the seriousness of the situation and not to overstate the patient, so that, for example, do not let him in the bathroom unsupervised until he has sufficient coordination of movements etc.

In the Czech Republic there are already several established centers focused only on stroke,where the patient is being treated and rehabilitated and later is an outpatient procedure. These centers are secured by all utilities, psychologists, physiotherapists, speech therapists, and there is also designed for background or near the patient. Here you can find information needed for the care of your loved ones.


How can I help myself

This question raises three varying responses. Firstly, the answer for those of you that have never seen the disease. Your basic means of oneself is avoided as much as possible risk factors. Of course not influence or age or family history, but you active and healthy life style diseases to prevent or at least postpone it.

If you encounter a person which you suspect has just undergone a stroke, do not hesitate to call for medical help. Wait for the person at the arrival of emergency services, keep an eye on her condition and describe the exact sequence of events, which is then very important for correct diagnosis. The first aid can really only do that to a person you talk to and control as a state of consciousness, if there was a cardiac arrest is necessary to respond to cardiac massage.

In case you have already suffered a stroke, it is necessary to follow medical instructions and other staff who will take care of you. Stroke is a disease that requires a strong will and mental balance.The greatest weight in the success of the return to normal life is nepolevit in rehabilitation.


Complications of stroke

Complications of the disease is not only the loss of the aforementioned self-sufficiency, long-term rehabilitation, movement disorders, vision, thinking and speech. A quarter of patients despite our care remains a disability pension.

The main complication is the neglect of treatment resulting from stroke or failure of subsequent treatment or lifestyle changes (smoking, diet etc.). The first stroke will survive an average of 8 out of 10 patients, but in inadequate treatment or other reasons will repeat it, that he survives only 4 patients from 10th

Other names: stroke, a stroke, stroke, cerebral infarction, stroke, brain stroke, TIA,

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