Description of stuttering

It is a disability which prevents the patient in fluent speech. The most common manifestation is a repetition of the first syllable of the word, and less commonly the word around. This phenomenon is often also accompanied by various movements, such as movements of the head, convulsive grip faces, and the like.

Stuttering is among the most severe speech disorder and occurs in about 1% of the population (in the Czech Republic being cited disability to 4% of the population). It is known that men and women suffer from this disorder as often. Koktavý people, or also balbutici are people who have problems with their speech fluency. Repeating words or just parts of them and quite often will attempt the difficult words in his verbal speech avoided. It should be noted that balbutici definitely not mentally impaired individuals. Their brains are in other areas (than speech) functions normally.Also, as regards the flow of their ideas, it is a completely continuous process without tearing.

Because of his handicap, but these people have a much greater problems with integration into society, which very often leads to decreased self-esteem, self-deprecation and self-pity. Then it definitely has an impact on their social lives – have bigger problems with finding employment and developing friendly ties.

Stuttering can be divided into beginning, lighter forms wherein the individual repeats first phonemes in the word (e.g. SSS-tree), an intermediate form, which is manifested by stretching first phonemes (e.g. róóóózumím) and most severe form, when disabled is almost able to communicate and verbal expression It is usually accompanied by heavy tikovými disorders (twitching body extremities) and autonomic symptoms (sweating, flushing, blood pressure increase).

The past and present of the many celebrities who suffer from stuttering. Included, for exampleMoses, the biblical prophet; genius physicist Isaac Newton, the famous creator of the theory of evolution Charles Darwin. Even among the actors find many stutterers, such as Marilyn Monroe,Samuel L. Jackson, Bruce Willis and well-known representative of Mr. Bean – Rowan Atkinson.

The causes of stuttering and risk factors

The cause of stuttering is not understood. Stuttering is not arise from a single cause, but the result of several factors, and plays an important role also heredity. Recently, according to the latest research stutterers rendered in different performances of individual brain hemispheres, which in turn means a contradiction between what “they want to say,” and what “they say”.

Most often this fault appears between the third and fifth year. They are, however, documented cases in which children of this age stutter Learnt (ie., They learn to talk by someone from relatives who stutters in speech), or they may be just so. Transitory stuttering, which subsides within a few weeks.

In the development of stuttering they are distinguished by two critical periods. One of them is between the third and fourth year, when the child begins to be able to formulate a sentence in itself.During this period, the ability to speak slower than the ability to understand and the child is several times repeating something already said. It is necessary to distinguish the situation when a child repeats larger units from situations where only repeat the beginnings of words or have problems with starting the spoken word. The latter situation, it is an important signal, which indicates that it might be a language disorder and should be initiated adequate treatment of pediatric speech therapist. The second critical period are the first school days, which for many a schoolboy severe mental stress.

There is also known. Stuttering latent form, which can start at any time during the life.

There are several known ingrained myths about stuttering. It is not true, for example, that stuttering is the result of psychological shock. Type stories that the child began to stutter after startling the devil and St. Nicholas, although they have something to himself, but if the child is not in itself has a certain predisposition to stutter definitely starts. Neither is it true that stuttering caused the parents of poor educational process. And it is also wrong to believe that stuttering suffers from unstable and anxious people. On the contrary, stuttering and related inconveniences can cause anxiety disorders in stutterers.

symptoms of stuttering

The symptoms of stuttering can be summarized into several basic categories:

  • Multiple repetitions (ma-ma-ma-ma-ma)
  • prolongation (mmmm-ma)
  • voice stress
  • the accelerated pace of speech
  • impaired respiration (irregular, superficial and intermittent)
  • increased frequency of insertions in the speech (type mmm, uh, eee)
  • pauses in speech (even in places where the spoken language is not expected)
  • blockade (inability pronouncing certain sounds – mostly P, B, T, C, G)
  • přeformovávání sentences in order to avoid difficult words

treatment of stuttering

Stuttering therapy addressing experts from phoniatrist, speech therapists and psychologists. In the most severe cases is invited to help even a psychiatrist or neurologist. Previously, the stuttering treatment conducted in hospitals where, however, most patients feel very calming and peaceful.Pleasant atmosphere during treatment nowadays achieves that after a period of treatment stuttering child and parents are present and are also involved in the rectification process speech. Children undergoing all sorts of speech exercises, which are alternated with group therapy, which aims to build confidence especially stutterers.

An important role in the treatment also play the parents, who should stick to a few rules:

  • Stuttering is not a disease and does not admit to stuttering child as ill thought.
  • Make home quieter, less hectic lifestyle.
  • If you talk with your child, speak slowly.
  • Let your child finish his thoughts.
  • Try not to speak for the child and don´t push him in speech.
  • For the communal meal, turn off the TV or radio. It is a time for family conversation, not listening to the radio or television.
  • Pay child more of their free time together can read, tell.
  • Give your child know that you are interested in what he says. When something tells you, look into his eyes and listen to what he says.
  • Promote and encourage him. Give him often enough to show their love and affection.
  • Do not make your child’s stuttering “problem.” Do not let anyone taunted him.

How can I help myself

Stuttering in most cases leads to the creation of anxious feelings and reduce confidence. Therefore, it is important to begin treatment under the guidance of an experienced speech therapist as soon as possible. It is essential also to introduce your surroundings with this disorder, as the closest people and their reactions are successful course of treatment is very important. There are several principles, how to communicate with Stutterers. These include patience in an interview with koktajícím man. Impatience, or complete the word for it, it is stressful and there is still more then an even stronger signs of stuttering. The interview should be calm and clear, but it certainly would not have cast interview, he leads a small child.

Other names: stuttering in speech, Stuttering

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