Description sinusitis

Sinusitis means inflammation of the sinuses. In most cases, it is associated with inflammation of the nasal mucosa and it is called rhinosinusitis. It is a common disease, especially in children.

Cavities is meant true cavities occurring in our skull, respectively, in its several bones. They are lined with a mucous membrane and increases with how skull from childhood to adulthood grows. Their function is not clear, anyway involved in the formation of voice, which gives its distinctive color.

Cavities are several. The two in the upper jaw, the two bones in the front, one (or three interconnected) in the ethmoid boneand two bone wedge .All these cavities communicate with the nasal cavity (the inside of the nose) of its terminals. All are lined with mucous membranes same as that in the nose.

They are most frequently to blame viruses that transgresses into the cavities of the nasal mucosa. After the damaged mucosa, it will be weaker and this damaged mucosa easily attaches bacteria. Therefore mostly runny waterypasses in purulent rhinitis.

As the cavities begin filling inflammatory secretions often clogged outlets. In this case, the airiness must renew medical intervention.

Furthermore, there may apply fungal (fungi) infection, which is an issue of people chronically weakened immune (leukemia, HIV / AIDS).

Most often affected bone cavity olfactory cavity and upper jaw.


Causes of sinusitis

As with many other diseases and sinusitis in progress can be acute or chronic.

The inflammation occurs most frequently change from the nasal cavity infection, rhinitis (rhinitis). Furthermore, inflammation may occur in the tooth socket, thus can infect a cavity of the upper jaw, which is located in the immediate vicinity of the roots of the upper front teeth (canines, premolars, first molars). This occurs for example when untreated caries. Bone between the root and custom cavity is very thin and inflammation passed easily penetrate. These infections can be very steep course with pain, high temperature and swollen face.

A special form is the so-called summer sinusitis, which typically occur when water pleasures. The point is that if you do a handstand in the water or somersault, there is a risk that you water gets into the nose cavities. These infections are typically after swimming in pools or natural pools and have very steep course.

The emergence of sinusitis can also occur frequently in connection with allergies.

Rarer is sinus inflammation elsewhere in the body, when the pathogen may get into the cavities of blood vessels and then sinusitis is a complication of the main disease.

Finally it is worth mentioning even traumatic infection where the infection into the cavity after receiving facial injuries, nose or eye.


Risk factors for sinusitis

Risk factors include particularly a weakened organism, physical / mental exhaustion, cold, prolonged stress, allergies, poor diet, lack of vitamins, eating disorders and smoking.

Also, long-term inhalation of chemicals, dust or smoke.

It is good to highlight the dry heat generated in overheated rooms with low humidity. Therefore, it is best to moisten the evaporator at night.

Furthermore, as already mentioned above, the serious disease of the immune system of the type of leukemia, HIV / AIDS.


Preventing sinusitis

Adhere to the principles of proper diet, ie eat regularly in your diet to include lots of fruits, vegetables, follow a regular sleep patterns.
Of course there is smoke because the smoke itself irritates the mucous membranes that are then much more susceptible to colonization by viruses.

In the case of influenza epidemics are advised not to delay in places increased accumulation of people (cinemas, theaters, balls), and in cases where there is no other way to limit the stay for the shortest time possible.

Then home to humidify the air, get rid of allergens.


Signs and symptoms of sinusitis

Disease usually begins with a runny nose, watery from the beginning, there is a gradual change in its festering, adding temperatures around 38˚C, children may be higher. Furthermore, the same symptoms typical chřipkovitá disease, therefore the overall fatigue, anorexia, myalgia.

The affected person begins to mumble and deteriorating quality of the sense of smell, which can lead to temporary loss of smell. You can add or burning pain in the neck.

There are headaches, sometimes the whole of the head, according to affected cavity, respectively.cavities. Further, for sinusitis, characterized by pain in the affected cavity when tapped. In the case of pain when tapped in connection with a cold diagnosis is almost certain. Furthermore, we can try another flag, and jiggle it or bending. In both these cases, the tendency for these operations are accompanied by pain in inflammation.
The pain is intense, especially in the afternoon.

In the absence of rhinitis but the area of the cavity is painful to palpation, it is necessary to think ofunrecognized caries, which can manifest as referred pain, or may be a complication of caries when inflammation on the tooth cavity transferred. In this case, it is therefore good to find a dentist and that he informed.

In childhood, the risk of infection to the so-called transition. Latent (hidden neprojevující a) phase when the classic symptoms usually very small or absent altogether. Notify us it could but other symptoms. Children may appear more frequent sneezing, which is mucopurulent secretions, it is also good to note how the baby sleeps. In this form it is often possible to spot nocturnal coughing and snoring. Children also often breathe through the mouth. It is also good to note near the nose when in the entrance can make chronic eczema. The whole can then be accompanied by recurrent acute sinusitis.

In chronic sinusitis, which may be due to insufficiently cured acute infection can occur some of the above symptoms, but not usually accompanied by increased temperature. Purulent rhinitis tends to be long-lasting, constantly stuffy nose, frequent snoring during the night. Also, there is often a chronic inflammation of the pharynx and respiratory tract.


Treatment of sinusitis

In the case of sinusitis is treated according to the cause. For viral origin is mainly calm andsupportive therapy aimed at strengthening the body’s immunity. Also apply to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to relieve symptoms.

For bacterial infections, treatment consists of antibiotics. It is also necessary if the clogged outlet cavity or formed spontaneously drain secretions wants to make a puncture cavity. When there is a needle pierced through the thick wall of the cavity and its contents evacuated. It is often necessary to repeat this performance in order to ensure complete elimination of inflammation. The procedure may seem very dramatic, but in the hands of an experienced professional is nothing distinctly unpleasant.

It is further recommended soaking arm hot water (30 min at 45 ° C), preferably bent. During this procedure improves blood circulation and release of mucous secretions. After this process should follow the greasy crust that it also brings improvement.

If it is suspected that behind the spread of infection is responsible adenoids, it is good to remove it.It makes the so-called adenektomie.

Other medications that your doctor may choose are mainly mucolytics (medicines used to liquefy mucus), antihistamines (allergy medications), or topical corticosteroids (medicines for relieving inflammation).

For recurring inflammatory changes in the mucosa and outlet cavities sometimes contributes to healing surgical intervention.


Complications sinusitis

As stated above, is itself sinusitis complications “rimes”. Complications of sinusitis is then divided into local, ie. Localized to the vicinity of cavities and distant.

Remote complications include inflammation of the middle ear, which is a complication quite common, especially in children. Furthermore, the infection can move to the lower respiratory tract, which, if it is a complication of chronic sinusitis, may be symptoms of respiratory tract infection (trachea, bronchi) compared herself sinusitis.

From the local it can be, for example mucosal cysts. Their formation occurs when the clogged outlet mucous glands. This can occur just irritation of the mucosa during inflammation. These cysts can then put pressure on the nerves in the cavity and thus raise uncomfortable pressure or even pain. Cures so that the cyst Punktum. Then, in most cases completely eliminate these problems.

When the cap cavity east there is a risk retention mucous content inside the cavity, it is here multiplying, creating the so-called. Mucocele. The most abundant is the case with the frontal sinuses. This process itself is usually not painful, but how the content pushes the structure around it may happen that pressure weakens the surrounding structures and may through them to compromise. For frontal sinuses and the olfactory cavities in bone that content then usually breaks through into the orbit of the eye and the pressure to move him. It concerned a longer period may not be noticed.

This problem is solved by surgical removal of content and again for passage outlet dutiny.Vzácně the mucocele can infect and then proceeds as acute sinusitis with complications such as inflammation of the transfer. Just into orbit.

Nowadays rare complication is inflammation of the transfer to the surrounding bone, but it is a serious complication of the tumultuous course.

Other serious complications include here orbital complications. These are called. Orbitocellulitisand phlegmone orbit. In the first case exceeds an inflammation on the periosteum of the orbit is also affected binder around the globe and eyelids. often with it can be found in children. They then basic symptoms of sinusitis and to this is added the swelling and redness of the lid, mostly in the inner corner, bulb can be easily pushed away to the outside. In extreme positions when viewed sideways can produce double vision. To this is often added conjunctivitis.

This condition may complicate either an abscess or unrestricted spread of inflammation to the surrounding area of the eye. In that case then arises phlegmon of the orbit, which is very serious, eye-threatening condition in which inflammation can spread to the cranial cavity.

This state is such that the caps are usually flushed both (but not necessarily), the eye is pushed out of the pit out so povystoupeno from its normal position forwards lacks mobility eye to the sides and the eye is very painful (more on touch) . It is also an important sign of fever.

More frequent complication is infection transfer to the lower respiratory tract, manifested asbronchitis or pneumonia.

Sometimes occur on the mucosa of the nasal cavity or cavities secondary to the formation of polypsthat then its size can obstruct nasal breathing and must be surgically removed.

Finally, we must mention the complication, which is a life-threatening condition, but which nowadays is thankfully rare antibiotics. It is the transfer of infection into the vein, which drains blood from the brain to the meninges of the brain, or brain.

Typical symptoms for disability soft meninges are called. Meningeal signs. This includes the inability to touch the chin to the chest when the attempt is accompanied by pain, the man will not sit with propnutými knees in the later stages occur Tilt your head back and stretched out. Further, the muscle contractions.

Are severe headache, urge and vomiting. It is also sensitivity to light and noise. This is the inflammatory origin accompanied by fever. When brain damage is then added symptoms, depending upon what point the brain is affected.

Other names: sinusitis, sinusitis, sinusitis, acute sinusitis, chronic sinusitis, acute sinusitis, chronic sinusitis

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