Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer

Description of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a very dangerous disease affecting the female reproductive organs.

Ovary (ovary) is paired female sexual organ occurring in the female pelvis. Both ovaries are located at the sides of the womb(uterus) to which are connected the fallopian tubes (tubae uterinae). Ovaries women of childbearing are about as plum, postmenopausal their size decreases.

Ovarian performs two basic functions. Produce sex hormones(estrogens and progestogens) that regulate the menstrual cycle and comprehensive work on the entire female organism. And also still serves as a storehouse of female gametes, eggs.

Each egg is placed in a sort of housing follicle. During each menstrual cycle, several growing and maturing follicles simultaneously until one of them roughly in half cycle bursts (so called stage. Ovulation) and releases the egg into the fallopian tube. If contact ova and sperm, fertilization can occur (fertilization), and the uterus is developing fetus.

Cancer is a disease that attacks the cells in various tissues of the human body. Healthy cells are constantly dividing and controllably maintaining a stable condition according to the needs of the organism. Whereas tumor cells undergo uncontrolled and uncontrollable division and unorganized form clumps tumors (cancers, tumors).

There are two kinds of tumors, benign and malignant.
Benign tumors (benign) grow slowly in their place of origin and are not prone tendency to penetrate and attack other healthy tissue. Ovarian arise benign tumors were often referred to as so-called. Cystomy. They are on average 20-30 cm high, filled with fluid or mucus and covered with a thin crust.

Its considerable size, however, can oppress the surrounding tissue (intestinal loops, veins, urinary tract etc.). Treatment of benign tumor is usually solved by surgical when tumor cells are removed and the disease thus ends. Benign tumors do not constitute a cancer in the literal sense, because they do not jeopardize other healthy tissue.

Malignant tumors invade and grow into healthy tissues, where they form secondary deposits, so-called. Metastases. Metastases may expand further to other organs through the blood or lymph.In the case of ovarian cancer is characterized by the chipping of the tumor and their attachment to other organs, such as intestine, uterus, fallopian tubes, peritoneum, etc.

Ovarian cancer is rarely spread through blood. To its expansion primarily uses lymph vessels, which gets to the lymph nodes of the abdominal cavity, where metastasized.

Cancer occurs in various forms with erratic signs and symptoms, treatment, and chances of recovery. In the case of ovarian cancer are most commonly epithelial carcinoma, which is formed from the cells located on the surface of the ovaries.


Risk factors for ovarian cancer

Increased risk of ovarian cancer we can tell family history. If any of your close relative suffered ovarian cancer, you also have an increased risk of disease.

Even personal history you can tell some things. If you have had eg. Breast cancer, you are more susceptible to cancerous growths and the ovaries.

An important risk factor is age. We can say that with age increases the risk of ovarian cancer. The critical period occurs especially after menopause, as evidenced by half the affected patients that are older than sixty-three years.

In the higher threat may occur even women who began menstruating before the age of twelve or women undergoing menopause as early as fifty years.

Great risk brings with it even cures for infertility (clomifen citrate). The risk is even higher if the woman could not even conceive.

Finally risk factors represents the smoking tobacco products and the consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol. These factors are particularly responsible for the occurrence of tumors mucinous type.


Prevention of ovarian cancer

For ovarian cancer, there is no effective prevention that we provide one hundred percent protection.But there are several options that can reduce the risk of its occurrence.

There is evidence that hormonal oral contraceptives for at least three years reduces the risk of ovarian cancer by 30-50%.

Women who chose to protect against birth control ligation ovaries, the risk of cancer decreased up to 67%.

In general we can say that partial protection guarantees pregnancy and breastfeeding long enough (at least for one year).

Studies have shown that the protective effects of having a diet rich in vegetables.


Signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer is a long time does not show in any way and does not involve any specific symptoms. May not be discovered even during routine pelvic exam .Právě therefore it is rarely found in time tumor at an early stage.

In the advanced stage, a woman may feel aching abdominal bloating and heartburn.

Between tumor continues to grow and split off small particles that infect other tissues (intestinal loops, peritoneum, the surface of the liver etc.) and establish secondary deposits. These bearings produce a fluid that accumulates in the abdominal cavity and form so called. Ascites. Tumor cells can pass through even the diaphragm to the pleural cavity, which may also produce a fluid called.Pleural effusion.

Advanced stage is characterized by increasing the volume of the abdomen, the abdominal wall pain, frequent urination (caused by the pressure that acts on the bladder), constipation (caused by pressure on the rectum), anorexia, vomiting, and in some cases, breathing difficulties.


Treatment of ovarian cancer

It is important that the patient entrusted to experts in specialized medical facilities, preferably in a so-called. Oncogynaecological.

Ovarian cancer is treated with a combination of two methods, surgery and subsequent chemotherapy.

The goal of surgery are to remove the maximum possible number of tumor cells (known.Debulking), secondly to establish the precise extent of the disease (ie. Staging). The incision is made from the pubic symphysis to the umbilicus (in some cases above the navel) for easier orientation throughout the abdominal cavity.

By default removes both ovaries and fallopian tubes (adnexectomie), uterus (hysterectomy), the appendix (appendectomy), abdominal caul (omentectomie) and sampling lymph nodes (lymfadenectomie). In severe cases, it is necessary to remove the spleen and part of the intestine.

Sometimes it may happen that the tumor is closely related to vital organs, and it is impossible to remove without damaging the body (tumor is called. Inoperable). So the operator tries to remove at least most of the tumors.

Chemotherapy is combating cancerous growths using cytostatic agents (substances that have the ability to dispose of rapidly dividing tumor cells). Cytostatic drugs are delivered into the body either injectable or tablet form.

Ovarian cancer is very sensitive to chemotherapy. Chemotherapy works systemically. This means that destroys and secondary deposits that have not even discovered. Currently in chemotherapy using cytostatic drugs containing platinum compounds (carboplatin, cisplatin) in combination with other cytostatic agents (paclitaxel, adriamycin, etc.). Cytostatics are administered in a day and overnight modes. The treatment was repeated at four-week intervals (so-called. Series).


How can I help myself

In the treatment of ovarian cancer it is vital that the patient was resting a lot, especially in demanding chemotherapy that stealing large amounts of energy.

Much about his illness or if you do not think after a while completely immersed. Try to focus on ordinary activities of everyday life. Pay attention to your hobbies, family and friends.

Opt for a healthy lifestyle, prepare a varied diet rich in vegetables and fruit, try to devote possibly even some physical activity and avoid any event, any stressful and emotionally challenging situations.


Complications of ovarian cancer

Complications of the disease occur in the actual cancer treatment because it causes many side effects.

After the surgery, can cause inflammation of the abdominal cavity (this however nowadays rarely happens). More frequent inflammation of the superficial wounds that do not heal with regular cleaning and maintenance thereof.

It must be noted, especially younger patients, the removal of sexual organs disappearing, their chances of having children of their own. Moreover, it must count on the fact that after removal of the ovaries is a marked decline in sex hormones (estrogens), causing the onset of menopause(manifested e.g. hot flushes, sweating), and earlier onset of osteoporosis and cardiovascular diseases. When called. Substitution (replacement) hormone treatment are supplied to the patient, these hormones and thus the symptoms associated with menopause diminished.

Chemotherapy is a factor that causes severe complications. Cytostatics is not very good to distinguish between rapidly proliferating tumor cells and rapidly dividing cells of healthy tissue.Among healthy cells undergoing rapid division, we sort the cells of hair follicles, the lining of the digestive tube and notably bone marrow cells that produce red and white blood cells necessary for the organism.

Thus, serious problems caused by cytostatics by destroying healthy cells of the human body. This process results in chronic fatigue, nausea and vomiting, increased susceptibility to infections, hair loss, etc.

Other names: ovarian cancer, ovarian cancer, ovarian cancer, malignant ovarian cancer, cancer of the ovary

Share your experience: