Description arthritis

Osteoarthritis is the most common musculoskeletal disorders,which occurs in about 12% of the adult population. It can very significantly, impair quality of life and often leads to disability.This disease occurs mostly in people of advanced age. For people aged over 65 in radiological studies, about 60%, find osteoartrické changes.

It is diagnosed in women and men. Differences in cancer incidence, with respect to gender, differ only in localized disease.It is degenerative, non-inflammatory disease that can affect substantially, any joints of the body. Most, however, appear onlarge bearing joints (knee, hip) on smaller joints of the handor on the intervertebral disks of the spine.

In the Czech Republic, the recently recorded a large increase in cases of the disease. Osteoarthritis gradually leads to loss of articular cartilage and also to an increase in the bone tissue around the joint. From the bone tissue growths arise that cause pain.


causes of arthritis

The exact reasons why osteoarthritis arises not yet fully known. In previous years, for a reason considered advanced age and wear of articular cartilage, which is now seen only as one of many possible causes. Generally, we can say that this disease may be due to multiple causes.

Osteoarthritis can, according to its origin, to distinguish between primary and secondary. Forprimary osteoarthritis is not the immediate cause of the utterly unknown. Sometimes, in the context of talking about hereditary factors, disproportionate and unilateral loading joints orobesity.

The reasons why there is secondary osteoarthritis, are already known. These are mostly various injuries and congenital malformations joint. Furthermore, some metabolic diseases (eg .: chondrocalcinosis), endocrine disorders (eg .: diabetes, acromegaly), inflammatory joint disease, and bleeding into joints. An important role is also played by various mechanical factors, such as unequal length limbs, hypermobility, or changes in the axial position of the bones.

In this disease, ongoing for many years, there is a gradual deterioration of the cartilage covering the articular surface. Cartilage loses its elasticity, strength, and thinning occur in the cracks, the surface is not smooth and thus the movement greater friction. Sometimes it comes to a complete cessation of cartilage.

The bones of the affected joint is formed growths that irritates the nerve plexus and cause pain.

Over time, the joint may become completely immobile up. Although it is a non-inflammatory disease, but during it appears a state resembling inflammation. These are called .: activated arthrosis.


Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis manifestations are diverse and depend on the stage of the disease and its localization. According to the findings on x-ray we distinguish four stages of osteoarthritis.

The first occurs in the formation of small, incipient, bony growths (osteophytes).

In the second stage, bony growths already evident.

The third stage is characterized as a joint space narrowing, bone ends substantial approximation and multiple formation of osteophytes.

In the fourth stage of the joint space has been slight or entirely extinct, may occur deformationof bone ends and the incorrect position.

Generally speaking, the more advanced the stage, the worse the pain and greater restrictions on the movement of the patient. Severe manifestation, which predicts a poor prognosis and in the future, represents resting, night pain.

As described previously, the disease affects different joints in the body. Here is a review of at least the most common. If the affected knee joints, it is a gonartrosis. Usually affects both knees at the same time and more women in higher age. Here is a typical symptom of pain on exertion,especially when climbing stairs or in difficult terrain.

The pain tends called .: starting character, which means that it appears in the morning or after prolonged sitting, when the joints are not “shake”. After prolonged movement pain disappear, but again may arise from increased strain joints.

In the advanced stage pain is stronger and it feels ill at rest. Consequently, there is a limitation of movement in the knee joint, sick and lame walk causes him great difficulty.

Joint is swollen, reddened and may occur even deformities, such as .: varus knees (feet into O).

Other common places where the disease occurs, the hip joints. In this case we are talking aboutcoxoarthrosis. Here is a localized pain in the groin area, sometimes radiating along the outer side of the thigh to the knee, sometimes radiates only into the groin and sacrum. Pain arises again as a starter. It develops when the disease further arises when walking and subsequently feels ill at rest.

In advanced stages, the patient makes the problem eg .: to get out of the bath or dress socks.Sometimes the affected extremity may also slightly reduced.

If the disease strikes a small, marginal knuckles (risartróza), then slightly different manifestations. Sometimes, it is morning stiffness of the joints. It may also create a painless swelling, which later formed a solid knot. Alternating with periods of remission, when the patient had no complaints with periods of disease activity. The patient may feel tingling in the hands, it tends to have impaired motor skills and is affected by the sensitivity of the hands.

There sometimes occurs even called. Erosive arthritis, the course is faster, more dramatic, there are signs of inflammation present and created distortions in the small joints of the hands. This type is most common in middle-aged women and is often confused with other onemocněním- rheumatoid arthritis.

The term activated arthrosis means a sudden and significant deterioration in trouble. The affected joint is swollen and virtually immobile, the skin around it tight and warm.


Risk factors for osteoarthritis

Among the risk factors for this disease include advanced age, excessive exertion,disproportionate burdening of the joints, or unequal length of limbs.

Secondly, even obesity, certain metabolic diseases, endocrine diseases, inflammatory joint disease, or bleeding into the joints.


treatment of arthritis

For treatment it is first important to a proper medical examination. The doctor will be interested in what difficulties the patient worried how long it feels and whether they appear only at certain times of the day, after exertion, long inactivity, or whether they are still present.

The doctor will also take a blood sample for blood tests. Among the tests that can be performed on suspicion of osteoarthritis include X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging, sonography and scintigraphy.

After proper diagnosis followed comprehensively focused therapy, which consists in maximizing the range of motion and minimize the pain and restriction of deterioration. The treatment will be several years, it is necessary that the patient long term cooperated.

Therapy is usually initiated movement and physical therapy. Is led by a physiotherapist or rehabilitation worker. It will recommend exercises to strengthen the muscles needed, but that does not overstress the affected joint.

The patient will be recommended to magnetic therapy, electrotherapy and hydrotherapy. It is often recommended acupuncture and therapeutic ultrasound, which is primarily used to reduce pain.

Another non-pharmacological method for overweight people, the reduction of their weight.

The patient is informed about the possibility of the use of prosthetic devices (modification of shoes, insoles, canes, orthoses) and he explained some of the regime limitations, such as .: termination or significant reduction of some inappropriate sports.

Subsequently started pharmacological treatment. Administered drugs from the group consisting ofanalgesics, that relieve pain in the form of tablets, but also locally-acting ointment.

Furthermore, appropriately selected, NSAIDs, but that was because of side effects often have to substitute. These drugs have an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect partially. They are used as long-acting drugs, from the group chondroprotectives that promote the regeneration of cartilage and collagen.

If insufficient pharmacological and physical therapy approaches to surgery. The first of these can be performed endoscopically “flush” joint which removes a small crumb of oddroleného joint. This method is applied particularly in knee osteoarthritis.

They can furthermore be surgically abraded inequality in the joint. In advanced conditions where no other possibility to perform total replacement of the affected joint.


How can I help myself

First, it is important to work with your doctor and follow his instructions. If you have a higher body weight, it should be cut. It is recommended that adequate physical activity. Suitable sports are when there is excessive load on joints, such as swimming or bicycling.

When activated helps osteoarthritis, in addition to the use or application of analgesics and priznicz compress (a wet towel, plastic, dry towel), which enclose the affected joint. Until resolution of this situation it is advisable to omit any exercise.

If you suffer from this disease, it is inappropriate to leave joints get cold, so always keep them warm.

From herbal products are, for example Comfrey ointment.


complications arthritis

When incorrect transposition surgery may develop septic arthritis. The joint is very swollen, hot and flushed. Among the general symptoms then are fever, chills, tremors, nausea, etc. …

Other names: osteoarthritis, artrosis, gonarthrosis, coxarthrosis, risartróza, osteoarthrosis, osteoarthrosis, degenerative osteoarthritis, osteoartrosis

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