Description of mumps

Mumps is an infectious viral disease (virus of the genusparamyxovirus) affecting the salivary glands, mainly the parotid.

How can ill children (mostly from the second year of age) and adults. Transfer is accomplished by air, and that prolonged close contact with an infected person, e.g. when staying in the same room (talk about droplet infection).

This indicates that transmission through objects freshly contaminated by infected saliva is exceptional. Since the incubation time is from 14 to 23 days, it is not possible to avoid any infection. A history of the disease remains a lifelong immunity.

There they are currently affected mostly adults, and for this reason, that since 1987 takes place mandatory vaccination against mumps, from 1995 in a joint vaccine yet against rubella(German measles) and measles (morbilli) at 15 months of age and booster dose should be given between 21 to 25 months (ie 6 to 10 months after the first vaccination).

Infects mainly people who were not vaccinated, but even vaccinated individuals may, in exceptional cases ill. The disease has a seasonal occurrence, especially for the winter and spring.


Risk factors for mumps

Undoubtedly the highest risk factor is a weakened immune system and intercourse with an infected person (including a person with a disease that does not show), neočkovanost, staying in schools, in the community.


prevention of mumps

The most effective prevention is of course vaccination. As mentioned above, the first vaccination is done together with vaccination against measles and rubella in the so-called. Triple vaccine at 15 months, přeočkovává with 21 to 25 month, ie 6-10 months after the first vaccine. Lifelong immunity remains.


Signs and symptoms of mumps

The disease begins with a fever of 38 – 40 ° C, and swelling of the parotid gland (palpable swelling at the front of and below the earlobe). Swelling is no redness, and can be painful (not necessarily!), And may spread to the other parotid gland, it can also affect other major salivary glands, submandibular gland ie (submandibular) and sublingual (sublingual).

Usually the swelling begins unilaterally and after 2-3 days it will also affect the other gland, or on one side swelling may retreat and emerge on the other side. Depending on severity of the disease lasts mumps 5-14 days, then fever and other symptoms subside.

In some severe cases may be associated meningitis (meningititida) with high fever, vomiting and headaches in some patients this may leave a unilateral hearing loss or deafness.

Further complicating matters is the inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis). This will be apparent lack of appetite, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Usually this pancreatitis leaving no consequences, but there have been cases where pancreatitis when Mumps lead to damage to the pancreas (islet damage comprising insulin producing cells) and cause diabetes (diabetes mellitus).

Frequent complication in adult males is an inflammation of the testicles (orchitis). Inflammation can affect either just one or both of the testicles. testicle is significantly enlarged, painful skin over it is red. It is a condition which if not treated, can lead to infertility (sterility).

The patient is infectious roughly 3 to 14 days before the onset of disease (maximum infectivity states 48 h prior to the appearance of the first symptoms) and approximately a week to 14 days after cure. Therefore, it should be for this time isolated from healthy individuals.


treatment of mumps

Treatment usually involves Sleep on a bed, medication and pain-reducing temperature (antipyretic analgesics) administration tiles.

No drug that would be determined against mumps virus is not available. In the case of inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), it is necessary to follow a diet (usually a diet consistent with the so-called. Gallbladder diet – with reduced fat).

When inflammation of the testicles (orchitis) are put cold compresses and prescribe glucocorticoids(medicines dampening the inflammatory response). Treatment usually takes 5 -14 days.


How can I help myself

The patient should in any case to visit the doctor, in particular due to possible complications of the disease (see below). It is necessary to adhere to Sleep on a bed. Not only provide relief medication (for pain and inflammation), but also the cladding (at the parotid gland, testicular).


complications of mumps

Complications of the disease are often part of the clinical picture of the patient. The above symptoms of mumps were mentioned: meningitis (meningitis), auditory nerve impairment and thushearing loss or deafness, inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis), the development of diabetes (diabetes mellitus), inflammation of the testicles (orchitis), infertility (sterility).

Usually mumps proceed without these accompanying conditions, but the occurrence of such symptoms without swelling of the parotid glands, should be a consideration of the possibility of infection with mumps and the patient should be tested either for antibodies in blood or urine, or should there virus directly demonstrated other methods.

Inflammation of the lining of the brain (meningitis) is a condition where the patient has a headache, he is sick, tired, has a fever. A doctor in such a patient shows meningeal signs, which means evidence of irritation of the lining of the brain (meninges). Typical is the impossibility of applying the chin to the chest (we say that serious neck eg. Two fingers), fit with narovnanými limbs on a bed without a patient leaning on her hands behind her back (Amos flag tripod), painful lifting stacked legs lying, impossibility pick up a right angle for pain and many other tests (ie. the clinical trials meningeal symptoms of upper, middle and lower).

Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) has mumps usually consequences. This is arefundable disability gland tissue with which the body can cope well – despite the rather serious-looking picture on the sick, who is feeling sick, vomiting, belly hurts him, suffers from anorexia.Difficulties can not compare with the difficulties that patients have with the classical acute pancreatitis occurring on bases other than mumps. However, it is important to remember that the pancreas (pancreas) is a vital organ and it needs to protect at least a diet that respects ill during inflammation. That means they do not eat fatty foods, avoiding over-exposed fat and easy to digest her food.

Regarding inflammation of the testicles (orchitis), must be administered compresses and anti-inflammatory drugs (prescribed by a doctor, it is a glucocorticoid), or inflammation can actually damage the tissue of the testis enough to spermiotvorná tissue and its efferent path changes in ligaments and longer never more is not possible to rectify this situation.

Other names: mumps, inflammation of the parotid gland parotitis, mumps epidemic, parotitis Epidemica

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