Mouth cancer

Mouth cancer

Description of oral cancer

Mouth cancer forms in the general public an umbrella term to which include several cancers related to this location. These include cancers of the oral cavity (mouth cancer or in the narrower sense), cancer of the tonsils and salivary glands.

Doctors in this area include majority and cancer of the pharynx (nasopharynx and oropharynx), nose, sinuses and throat. That would be among the laity but rather moved by the throat cancer, so we will below address the issue of parts of the mouth, not the nose or throat.

These tumors generally occupy between cancers relatively low percentage (5%) and occurs mainly in men over 40 years with a maximum around age 60 in the 6: 1 ratio as compared to women (although in other countries this ratio is much higher, on the other hand, with us today increasing tonsil cancer in women) they have a very close to each not only for its localization, but also its etiology (origin, formation mechanism) to which is linked a number of risk factors.


Risk factors and prevention of oral cancer

Since these tumors occur primarily in male smokers and alcoholics are thus quite obvious risk factors (not true for cancer of the salivary glands, which failed to show the effect of dietary habits, or smoking-related). We consider this to be an advantage because in other cancers often do not know the factors that are involved in its development, and therefore we can not find a suitable prevention.

The most important risk factors – carcinogens – is therefore concentrated smoking and drinkingalcoholic beverages. In a joint action, their effect is enhanced each other. The relative risk is increased in alcoholics 2 × – × 6, with heavier smoking 5 × – × 25 depending on the number of cigarettes smoked (smoked 300,000 cigarettes is almost one hundred percent certainty of developing cancer, an individual could save only a favorable genetic predisposition). If someone is currently a heavy smoker and drinker, the effect of these two factors is enhanced by 15 to 40 fold.

Cigarettes contain up to several hundred carcinogenic substances (aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons, cadmium, carbon monoxide, nitrosamines and others). Along with them, the development of cancer involved thermic effect of inhaling cigarette smoke, mechanical irritation, pH change and called. Vasoconstriction (download arteries) induced by nicotine. It is harmful and chewing tobacco (betel).

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by various enzyme systems. Carcinogenic effect has up to the first metabolite – acetaldehyde – exerted by the alcohol dehydrogenase (enzyme). If someone has more active enzyme is less active acetaldehyde (another enzyme which converts precisely that acetaldehyde), then more predisposed to the accumulation of acetaldehyde in the body. This effect is applied, for example, for most Asians, who therefore prefer to avoid alcohol consumption.

The bulk of patients consists of the above reasons, the group with low socio-economic status, with low levels of hygiene habits and negative relationship to care for their own health, which then also the possibility of early diagnosis and treatment of their own are very limited.

Prevention is simply nevykouřit 30 cigarettes per day and not become an alcoholic. Regarding more of smoking, and further increases the number of cigarettes smoked per day has not changed appreciably risk – ie. remains high and “eat” the difference is, if you smoke per day, 35 or 45 cigarettes.

The best prevention is obviously not smoke. Protecting your body not only against the occurrence of cancer, but against a whole range of other diseases (lung, breast, esophageal, leukemias and many other cancers, cardiovascular disease – e.g. myocardial infarction, stroke, and respiratory disease such as bronchitis or tuberculosis ). A year die from diseases caused by smoking-fifth of the 100 000 people.

Other risk factors may be influences of heredity, occupational exposure to harmful substances(polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos, sulfuric acid, etc.), Nutrition (harmful in excessive amounts of butter, animal fats, healthy are, however, fish, vegetables and fruits), snuff ( chewing already mentioned) and gastroesophageal reflux disease.


carcinoma of the lip

Lip cancer is one of the most common cancers in the oral cavity. The 90% is affected by the lower lip and the most common in men between the 60th to 70th year of age. The ratio between men and women handicap is 9 to 1. Predisposing factor is in addition to the above particularly chronicexposure to sunlight. It occurs more frequently among workers residing mainly outside. Other risk factors include smoking pipe.

Symptoms of lip cancer

Most often it occurs nonhealing swollen lower lip, which may start to bleed. Simultaneously, it is shown the time of diagnosis and swollen neck lymph nodes, since the tumor will usually come late and lip cancer, like other cancers, head and neck mainly spread to lymph nodes and does not form distant metastases.

Examination of lip cancer

Your doctor will mostly lip carefully inspect and Palpating your cervical nodes. Can you do the CT, MR (magnetic resonance imaging) or ultrasound examination. For histological confirmation of the tumor is needed sampling – biopsy or aspiration, which, due to easily accessible localization are for the patient or for the doctor demanding.
Those tests also apply to other tumors of the orofacial region.

Treatment of lip cancer

In the early stages of tumor (2/3 lip cancer, however, diagnosed at late stage) may be surgical treatment or irradiation. The choice of method depends on the location, age of the patient and the expected cosmetic results. Many surgical procedures are namely mutilating (deplete the patient’s appearance). In this respect, it is preferable to radiation (radiotherapy), but it has its risks because it adversely affects the esophagus and may cause dysphagia, in extreme cases, with the necessity of introducing duct through the wall of the abdomen into the stomach, which is then served food (gastrostomy).

But the prognosis is quite good, can achieve a cure in 90% in less advanced tumors.


Oral cancer

The oral cavity includes the front two thirds of language, scum oral, buccal mucosa, dental beds, hard palate and the area backwards for wisdom teeth. Incidence of malignant tumors in this localization is increased over 40 years, with an average occurrence of about 60 years of age. The ratio between men and women handicap is lower – about 3: 1st

Among the main factors include smoking, alcohol, poor oral hygiene, long-term irritation of the oral cavity defective teeth and chewing betel.

Symptoms of oral cancers

In the early stages, oral cancer, unfortunately, symptomatic (= no symptoms). In the course of the most common pain also may occur difficulty swallowing and speech more difficult. In 40% of patients they are at diagnosis also affected lymph nodes may be swollen, or enlarged (on the neck, under the jaw, below the ears).

Treatment of oral cancers

Tumors of language as well as the buccal mucosa cancer and other cancers of the oral cavity can be solved either by surgery or irradiation. In advanced stages, it uses a combination of both.

If the glands are affected, while also vyoperují or irradiated, depending on what doctors chose the tactics on the primary tumor.

Like cancer, lip here brings both surgical and radiation therapy its advantages and disadvantages.

An essential part of the treatment is also relieve pain, which is cancer of language very unpleasant and burdensome.

The course of the disease and the chances of cure are for oral cancer is worse than cancer lip. It’s the also the initial symptomatic stage, when the patient comes to the doctor because they have had no problems. In the case of alcoholics who may be homeless, for example, how many times do not bring to a doctor or already beginning signs of the disease. Chances of vyléšení then significantly reduced.


carcinoma of the oropharynx

Oropharynx is part of the pharynx (pharynx = Latin pharynx), which is associated with the oral cavity. This location is the second most common area of incidence of malignant tumors in the neck (the first place has cancer of the larynx). The ratio of sick men and women is 3: 1st Today, the incidence increasing trend, especially in women. Most often they are sick people around the 50th to 60th year.

The greatest evil is again alcohol and smoking.

Symptoms of cancer of the oropharynx

Patients with oropharyngeal cancer are often early in the illness, without significant symptoms.Because the most common sites of cancer of the oropharynx is an area of almonds – tonsils, patients tend to have a burning sensation and sore throat. The disintegration of the tumor soon leads to a strong odor from the mouth.

Patients often suffer from dysphagia (ie. Dysphagia – dys = bad, FAGI = swallowing), which can be as painful. Many a pain radiates into the ear. Already the stagnation bites but can be annoying and cause difficulty in feeding.

Treatment of cancer of the oropharynx

Treatment of oropharyngeal cancer is primarily surgical (eg, removal of tonsils). In advanced stages, combined with other treatment modalities – radiation or chemotherapy.


Carcinoma, salivary gland

In the oral cavity are present three major salivary glands – storey (parotid), sublingual and submandibular – and also a lot of minor salivary glands under the tongue. Tumors in this area are mostly benign – they have a “good” character, not malignant (ie no cancer, of which there is a speech), and most of them specifically concerns the parotid gland.

Benign tumors usually occur between the 40th to 50th year. The average age at diagnosis of cancer is 55 years, but may occur at any age. There is no difference in the incidence according to sex, maybe slightly higher percentage of women.

Symptoms of cancer of the salivary glands

Cancer of the salivary glands is manifested by swollen, which is long painless. Usually it occurs only on one side, so it is noticeable, and the patient often himself Nahm it.

It can also occur seventh cranial nerve palsy (facial nerve) and the resulting symptoms – lowering the initial corner and then transporting antagonistic muscles that raised him up. Altered may be saliva secretion. Enlarged lymph nodes are.

Benign tumors grow compared to cancer of the salivary glands slowly, always painless and does not cause paralysis of the facial nerve. Also not so stiff and there is no sign of the tumor to the surrounding skin.

Treatment of carcinoma, salivary gland

The treatment is surgery. However, the risk may be damaged facial nerve of that right. In benign tumors performance is not nearly as radical, removes only the tumor and not its surrounding tissue (ie, a salivary gland), as is the case with malignant tumors (carcinomas).

For cancer lower stage can be achieved by treatment with up to 80% remission (in highly malignant it may be only 30%), but carcinoma, salivary gland is problematic in that it may lead to relapse (the return of the disease) even in the ceiling of several years. At present, but the incidence decreased and prognosis is improved.

Other Names: carcinoma of the oral cavity cancer, mouth cancer, mouth cancer, oral cavity cancer, lip cancer, tongue cancer, oropharynx carcinoma, salivary gland

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