Minimal brain dysfunction

Minimal brain dysfunction

Description of brain dysfunction

The term brain dysfunction is a general term for many slight variations in mental development of the child based on the weakening of the function of the central nervous system (CNS).These disorders often children suffer from average to above average intelligent, which are manifested learning and behavior disorders.

The weakening of the function of the CNS can occur in pregnancy, during birth or after birth too early. Under this condition can neither child nor family nor school, and therefore it makes no sense for someone to blame. Such dysfunction, however, be appropriate educational activities to positively influence. Treatment can help and even the natural development of the child, in which there is also the maturation of the central nervous system and some negative behavioral manifestations may sometimes dim and possibly completely disappear.


Risk factors for brain dysfunction

As one of the first risk factors we can certainly identify hereditary predisposition (talent), that a child may inherit from their parents or close relatives. Heredity is the creation of the LMD involved in 50-70%. In 1998 it was discovered the gene that causes dyslexia. This gene is located on chromosome, which is responsible for management of the immune system, which would explain the fact that patients with ADHD are much more prone to allergies and various infections.

Higher incidence of ADHD is also found in families that do not care too much on raising children who do not have a solid background. Significant positive impact on a child’s early mental and social stimulation.

Other risks may entail factors that affect the future mother during pregnancy, eg. A viral infection, trauma, mental stress and shock, risk pregnancy, alcohol consumption and smoking tobacco.

The emergence of LMD may also cause complications during childbirth, for example. Hypoxia (inadequate blood supply to the brain of the newborn), using obstetric forceps during bilirubinemia (post-natal jaundice) and the like. These complications bring a 20-30% risk of developing ADHD.

Risk factors may be influencing the child after birth. Among these factors we can sort of high fever in the first few years of life, encephalitis, meningitis or head injuries.


Prevention of brain dysfunction

Studies have shown that the maturation of brain activity may already during pregnancy could affect the specific stimulation. These are called. Prenatal learning where its sound stimulation are activated nerve cells (neurons) of the fetus, causing a strengthening of activity in the brain. Thus stimulated children are born with a higher birth weight and begin to speak earlier and walk than their peers.


Signs and symptoms of brain dysfunction

Right at the beginning it should be noted that ADHD is not a disease with a single cause and a symptom. It is a disease that falls under many symptoms that have a common origin, and that the weakening of the functions of the central nervous system (note that this is no serious neurological disorders). Basically we can say that what we find mental functions, so their dysfunction can be defined.

When the disease is observed LMD decreased amount of brain tissue (i.e. the gray and white matter) in the frontal areas of the brain.

From the point of view neuroanatomického at LMD there are some differences from the normal arrangement of neural connections.

In this case, cerebral blood flows less than usual, and therefore neurons (nerve cells) insufficiently supplied with oxygen, which in turn cause variations in the electrical activity of the brain.

These above listed symptoms are caused by overall inability of the patient’s attention span, alertness and concentration and impair memory and learning, cause disturbances in motor activity, hyperactivity, developmental disorders of speech, etc.

As we already know, LMD has many facets that we can according to their symptoms divided into many categories, which are defined by individual diagnoses of the International Classification of Diseases.

The first symptom may be a significant attention deficit disorder. This inability to long-term concentrations may be manifested in school, work and in all kinds of social situations. Persons for whom the symptom manifests itself, often make careless mistakes and their work done is thoughtless, untidy and generally chaotic.

It can be described as hasty, rozlítané and it is typical for them, they often nedotáhnou work in progress until the end. These patients are highly unreliable, certainly do not have organizational skills, their work ethic is confused, easily distracted events around and often their restlessness manifested in conversation with others when they are not able to stick to the topic, often when away from him digress, do not perceive what others tell them so.

Another symptom is represented by behavioral disorders that are characterized by substantial impulsivity and hyperactivity. Impulsivity is inherently impatient. Impulsive people are not able to wait for their turn, interrupting other, shouting at them, do not listen to instructions, go back to the objects which would extend not, sometimes other people steal various items from hand cast in risky and dangerous situations, without considering their implications and so on.

This impulsiveness may cause various accidents and injuries. Whereas hyperactivity manifests as constant restlessness. We can observe eg. Children who are still squirms in his chair, poposedávají, are running around etc. These individuals are constantly seemed irritated to perform all sorts of activities and endless talking.

In many symptoms we continue with learning disabilities. This means that the child has a problem with a particular object or group of objects (eg. Swims in mathematics, but rather excels in the humanities). The word “specific” refers to the fact that for the problems in the learning process, not intellect. These disorders are the reason why school children are lagging behind the average or even above-average intellect.

ICD defines the following learning disabilities: dyslexia (disturbance in reading skills, the inability to distinguish and properly sort the letters, assemble them into one whole and correctly pronounce),dysgraphia (writing difficulties) dysortography (failure spelling) and dyscalculia (impaired mathematical skills ).

Further weakening of the brain functions can cause developmental disorders of speech. We should not forget that for all the defects of speech not only LMD. Children with this disorder begin to pronounce the first words a little later than their peers (after about half a second year of life).Among the obvious symptoms include stuttering, hesitation before every word, searching for words and their subsequent conversion into fluent speech, slurred speech (pronunciation), etc. These symptoms are probably caused by low electrical activity in the speech center.

In the list of disorders can also include motor disorders that may be associated with intellectual deficits.

The individual diagnosis may overlap, which implies that for those who suffer from one brain dysfunction, it is likely that they develop and further dysfunction.

It is also possible that such a weakening of CNS function not only affects higher mental abilities, but also the feelings and moods, which can cause patients anxiety and depression.


Treatment of brain dysfunction

In the case of ADHD are more likely to talk about the remedy than to treat, because the procedures used had both the nature of the treatment, rehabilitation, teaching and also exercise.
Such a correction may weaken brain function completely return to order.

With treatment, drug use, EEG biofeedback, various corrective procedures (eg. Speech therapy, counseling, special education etc.).

Pharmacotherapy experts trying to return to his brain enough activity. Patients are administered so. Nootropics that substantially nourishing brain tissue, provide greater blood flow cerebral vessels, and thereby greater supply of oxygen and glucose nerve cells. These drugs have no side effects, do not cause addiction and the organism is generally well tolerated.

As an additional therapeutic agent is used Piracetam (Piracetam AL 800). It is a sort of natural vitamin for the brain. This is called a derivative. Gamaaminomáselné acid (GABA), which is a natural neurotransmitter that leads impulses from one nerve cell to another. The recommended dose for children is 800 mg 3 times daily for adults and more severe cases, the recommended dose is doubled. This is an effective drug in pharmacies freely available and is covered by insurance.

In addition to piracetam has on the nervous system and blood circulation also affects Encephabol,Enerbol and Ginko Biloba. Ginko Biloba is used as a dietary supplement is freely salable, but only partly covered by insurance.

Beneficial effects on neural tissue are of course vitamins, especially B vitamins, e.g., vitamin B6 (ie. Pyridoxine), present mainly in cereal germs. Among other fortifying substances we can also include lecithin (soy extract) and ginseng.

Further recommended minerals, because when it takes and electrical activity of the brain is dependent on ions of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium and chlorine. Plenty of these substances brings balance nerve tissue. For example, we can mention that magnesium is especially recommended for calming hyperactive children.

In pharmacotherapy is also used so-called. Psychostimulants, which can significantly affect the central nervous system by suppressing symptoms attenuated CNS functions, for example. Inattentiveness and hyperactivity. These highly effective drugs, however, have many side effects, for example, inhibit the growth hormone, which causes less physical size and weight, not to mention the risk of addiction. Therefore, these medicaments they used only in very severe cases.As a representative, we can mention the so-called. Ritalin.

Helping to a range of drugs for the treatment of ADHD can arrange so-called. Thymoleptics that increase levels of serotonin (a neurotransmitter that is responsible for mental balance and well-being) in the brain. These drugs are also referred to as a so-called. Antidepressants, which inter alia inhibits hyperactivity. This group includes Seropram and Deprex (Prozac).

In addition to pharmacotherapy in the treatment of ADHD has also been used so. EEG-biofeedbackto improve mental state regulation uses frequencies of brain electrical activity (ie. Brainwaves). This method is very effective, especially to enhance the activation of the nervous system, attention, concentration, self-control and self-discipline progressivity as regards intellect. This method also positively affects sleep disorders, bedwetting (enuresis), developmental disorders of speech and specific learning disorders.

Furthermore, in medical therapy are also used advisory corrective procedures that are relevant for each specific dysfunction his method, for example. Speech defects is engaged in speech therapy, behavioral modifying the daily routine of the child and uses a so-called. Autogenous training, incidental teaching a child undergoes various special corrective procedures like.


How can I help myself

It is important to talk with your child and explain to him that his problems do not cause nor in his character or morality, but in biological (or more precisely in psychoneurofyziologické) fault for which he can. Therefore, a child with ADHD can not reeducate, but rather it needs to entrust in the hands of professionals.

It is important that the child feel loved and not for their failures admonish or even punished. With your patience, support and love, it will be better overcome obstacles and various tasks. Try to raise the child in a positive direction, appreciate child for what he does and what he is doing, even though it may be only a little thing, and nevytýkejte him things that are not his forte.

When it comes to rebuke, highlighting exactly what the child did wrong and do not turn on him with reprimands’re always angry, because eventually it may happen that your child will agree and will stop by to try anything.

Try to prepare the child a varied diet that is rich in fruits and vegetables. Conversely avoid diet full irritating chemicals, artificial ingredients, fragrances, flavorings, colorings, artificial sweeteners, sugars and fats.


Complications of brain dysfunction

This disease is complicated only by the fact that it can affect multiple brain functions, which prevent the malfunctioning of a person to live a full personal and social life. All potential complications that when LMD disease could occur, are already mentioned in the symptoms of this disease.

Other names: ADHD, ADHD – Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, ADD – Attention Deficit Disorders

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