Description migraine

Migraine is a chronic disease characteristic headache, usually on one half of the skull. This disease of civilization suffers about 20% of women and 6% of men. Although these people are not at risk to life, but migraine attacks are very uncomfortable and restrictive.

Migraine is one of the diseases that have a huge negative impact on the quality of life of those affected. Most migraine patients have difficulty concentrating, learning and work performance, and often sexual life.

Paroxysmal pain lasting 3-72 hours, wherein migraine is divided into 2 kinds. Migraine with aura (20%) and migraine without aura (80%). Aura is a precursor that precedes migraine seizures and is characterized by abnormal function of one sensory organ.There are eg., Visual field defects, visual disturbances (blurred vision, flashing lights, black spots), smell, hearing, respectively.tingling in the limbs and problems with speech. Aura disappear simultaneously with the onset of headache.

First seizures typically appear in childhood. However, the most affected are people between 25thand 45 years of age, with migraine states generally extends until the 60th year, when the intensity of the frequency decrease, respectively. disappear completely.

The exact cause of migraine is unknown. It is concluded that the seizure causes a specific trigger factor (fatigue, stress, lifestyle changes, abrupt climate change, noise, sleep deprivation, dietary measures, alcoholic beverages, as well as hormonal changes), which causes a drop in first regional cerebral blood flow.

If there is a significant drop, aura arises in other cases aura arises. After that, the expansion of cerebral blood vessels (vasodilation), while from the nerve endings begin to release substances (vasoactive amines) that cause pain and further expansion of the blood vessels. These substances are normally present in the blood, but the concentration may be increased for example, the consumption of certain foods, stress, lowering blood sugar, etc.

Some people have a deficiency of the enzyme degrading tyramine, a substance present example. Yoghurts, cheese, chocolate, meat, red wine and other products. If the excessive accumulation of tyramine in blood, this may start a chain reaction leading to migraine.

One of the triggers may be the presence of positively charged ions in the air, which increases levelsof serotonin, which in turn causes a migraine. These ions are found mainly in the dusty air, smoke-filled rooms and in the heat.


Risk factors for migraine

Given that the cause of the disease is not completely known, are particularly risky trigger factorswhich are highly specific for each migraineurs. Trigger factors are twofold.

Uncontrollable factors include, for example, menstrual cycle, weather changes in the weather and other factors beyond our control.

Conversely controllable trigger factors such as stress, lack of sleep, passive smoking, certain kinds of foods, strong light, loud noises, strong smells, etc., which can be avoided. Each migraineurs should therefore reveal its controllable trigger factors and try to avoid them in everyday life.

The course of migraine may also aggravate the overuse of certain drugs, particularly barbiturates and opiates. Often, the complete disappearance of migraine ordinarily discontinuation of hormonal contraception.


prevention of migraine

Successful prevention of migraines is not there yet. Scientists agreed that migraine, like many other diseases, is also a hereditary disease. If it suffers from one of the parents is a 50% chance that the offspring will also be present. But if it suffers from both parents, this option is 85%.

To improve the quality of life you must lead a migraine calendar. In it you migraineurs record all stressful events for 24 hours before the onset of a migraine, and all the food we ate during that time.


Signs and symptoms of migraines

Migraine has as many other diseases have several phases.

first prodromal

This phase is very unobtrusive warning the moment preceding the own illness. Usually manifests mood swings, restlessness, nervousness, fatigue, depression, irritability, loss of appetite, etc. Often, however, these symptoms are so small that they migraine or unnoticed.

second Aura

This phase is not always present. It concerns only about 20% of migraineurs and usually lasts 5 minutes to 1 hour.

3. Own headache

It is a medium to large unbearably headaches that are usually vibrant character, localizedunilaterally, usually around the eye.

A seizure may be accompanied by vomiting and nausea.

This phase is for migraineurs the most feared and the most painful. At this point, the majority finds a quiet, dark room.

Among the common migraine symptoms include an abnormal sensitivity to sound, sight, smell and touch stimuli. Migraine sufferers may also feel inner confusion, drowsiness, irritability, dizziness, blackouts field of vision or double vision. Stronger migraines are accompanied by vomiting, which is characterized in that, after it comes relief.

4th postdrome

In this final phase has been ongoing for recovery and headaches gradually subside. It can take hours to days and is usually present fatigue and loss of appetite.


diagnosis of migraine

For this disease there is an objective test, and hence diagnosis is based primarily on the history. It is used standardized questionnaires to certain criteria. The doctor will ask about the frequency and intensity of migraine aura that was present, how long it lasted, what character had headaches that were throbbing, unilateral and whether it was present sickness (nausea, vomiting). It is also important to the doctor explain the circumstances under which the migrenóznímu seizure occurred, and all the symptoms that you suffer.


treatment of migraine

Treatment of migraine is twofold.

Drugless involves the removal of triggering factors, lifestyle adjustments, application of cold compresses to the forehead and the inclusion of relaxation techniques.

Drug therapy is based on the use of several types of drugs. We can divide them into drugs to treat acute migraine attack (analgesics, triptans) and medicines used continuously, anti-migraine (prophylactic treatment).

Migraine sufferers should, however, take only those medicines that the doctor prescribes them. Many people treat migraine common analgesics (Ibalgin, Aspirin, Acylpirin, Paralen, etc.), which have only a temporary effect and may cause addiction, respectively. the emergence of everyday headaches.

Significant progress in the treatment of migraine showed just triptans. They can be taken in the form of tablets, nasal sprays or injections.

If migraine conditions occur more frequently than three times per month, it is necessary to apply and prophylactic treatment, which aims to reduce the frequency of seizures. The doctor prescribes the appropriate treatment according to the diary, he personally led migraineurs. Record into it the exact time and duration of seizures, its intensity and potential vegetative accompaniment.


How can I help myself

Try to find all the moments that you induce a migraine states and then try to avoid them. What is important is lifestyle change means. avoid foods that might run attack, but pay particular attention to adequate sleep and regular daily routine. Migraine sufferers should also be avoided e.g. night shifts or noisy places.


complications of migraine

One of the complications can be chronic migraine or transformed migraine. In this case, the headache occurs after more than 15 days per month and gradually increase the frequency of seizures and decreases pain intensity. Nausea, sensitivity to bright light and loud sound may or may not occur.

Another common complication is migrenosus status. We are speaking about this condition when the migraine attack lasts longer than three days and meets all the criteria for migraine without aura.

It may also happen that aura symptoms persist for more than one week, or will to migrenóznímuinfarction, ischemia occurs when the brain. It is also reported that migraine may start a seizure.Mostly it is a migraine with aura and seizure occurs during a migraine or just after it.

Other names: hemicrania, migraine with aura, migraine without aura

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