Metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome

Description of the metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is a very common disease, affecting around 30% of European and North American populations. It is a serious disease that supports and accelerates atherosclerosis(hardening of the arteries) and may result in cardio-vascular (cardiovascular) problems, among other things, heart attack (myocardial infarction) or stroke.

Basically metabolic syndrome comprises several components, among which is dominated by type 2 diabetes (type 2 diabetes mellitus), whose base is insulin resistance (insensitivity tissues to the action of the hormone insulin, whose function is to reduce blood sugar levels), higher blood pressure (hypertension ) andobesity.

But only since the 80s of 20th century is a common occurrence these three basic components seen as a condition of having a common cause. Probably it requires a certain genetic predisposition, but currently prevailingenvironmental conditions, and thus this disease also includes the so-called. lifestyle diseases.

Metabolic syndrome is diagnosed through clinical examination, including blood. The parameters include waist circumference in women greater than 88 cm in men more than 102 cm, blood pressure higher than 130/85 (mmHg), glycaemia greater than 6.0 mmol / l (blood sugar), triglycerides greater than 1 7 mmol / L, HDL cholesterol in women less than 1.25 mmol / l in men less than 1.0 mmol / L (levels of specific types of fat in the blood).


Risk factors for metabolic syndrome

Risk factors are genetic predisposition, the incidence of diabetes of the second type (both patient and family), high blood pressure, obesity, low physical activity, unhealthy lifestyle (sedentary work, excessive food intake and inappropriate dietary composition), excessive drinking and Finally, smoking.


Prevention of metabolic syndrome

It is a serious disease which can not be fully prevented, but we can affect a variety of factors that aggravate medical condition.

Healthy lifestyle, healthy nutrition and adequate physical activity should be the foundation. Identify patients prone to develop metabolic syndrome should be based on the search of the family-onset diabetes (diabetes mellitus), high blood pressure (hypertension, ie. Primary or essential when we do not know the cause), capture border or higher concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol (fat substances) in the blood, increasing waist circumference and obesity (severe is called. android type of obesity when fat is concentrated mainly in the abdomen and abdominal organs) for menstrual irregularities and hirsutism (increased hair growth). All of these conditions should be investigated and subsequently treated appropriately.


Signs and symptoms of metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndrome is not a disease, which affected only one system or one body and also not a disease that would hurt.

It is a complex disease, where one component increases the likelihood of other components, thus in some circumstances we talk about a vicious circle.

Himself ill course wearing notice that suffers some syndrome since, as already mentioned, the metabolic syndrome in itself does not hurt. In this case, it is not true that what the eyes do not see, the heart does not hurt.

In Syndrome X there are problems with the heart and blood vessels (angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease – poor blood flow to the extremities), obesity and its associated complications (eg. Joint damage, heart failure and many others), headache etc. For physicians are particularly important laboratory values in blood (blood fat and sugar), which together with the waist circumference, and blood pressure are used to establish a diagnosis.However, obesity is visible and manageable also!


Treatment of metabolic syndrome

Treatment of metabolic syndrome is primarily based on a change in lifestyle, especially weight reduction achieved by a combination of physical activity, psychotherapy and changes in diet (diet with fruits, vegetables, wholemeal bread, reduce salt and fat in the diet …). An important role is played by stopping smoking and excessive drinking.

In the second line, then started therapy with medication (drug treatment). It is usually deployed only when weight reduction, change in diet and increased physical activity does not help. There are many drugs which affect individual components of the metabolic syndrome, but it is advisable to use drugs that act simultaneously on multiple components of metabolic syndrome, ie those which act comprehensively. Drug combination depends on the condition of the individual patient and the balance of the treating physician.

Generally prescribed antidiabetic drugs (medicines for diabetes), antihypertensives (drugs for high blood pressure), antiobesity drugs (drugs against obesity, lowering blood lipids, sugars and often also pressure), or other drugs depending on the condition and needs of the patient.


How can I help myself

What is important is collaboration with a doctor, without which the disease can not be prevented.Only when good cooperation can be achieved favorable results.

If you know that someone you love is treated or treated for high blood pressure, diabetes, or have weight problems, and you should be on the lookout and also your family doctor.

Although genetic factors, none of us can escape, an important if not more important role nowadays plays our lifestyle. There are people who spend their lives smoke, overeat to drink alcohol at an increased rate, no reasonable move and survive a relatively advanced age. But hand on heart, such is indeed little. Substantial therefore realize that pharmacological therapy (ie, via medicines) arelimited, and it does not resolve the disease itself and certainly does not help much as the weight adjustment and lifestyle. It is necessary to actually lose weight on the scale recommended by your doctor, permanently change your diet, stop smoking and start with some regular and adequate physical activity.

Your ideal weight should be in the range of BMI (body mass index) of 20 to 25 This index can be calculated using the formula: weight in kilograms divided by your height in meters squared (BMI = m (kg) / L2 (m)).

Example: If you weigh 100 kg and measuring 175 cm and 100 kg divide by your height in meters at 1.75 second, a 100 / 1,752 = 32.65. BMI above 25 are considered to be overweight, over 30 is already as obesity. As mentioned, it is optimal to have a BMI values between 20 to 25


Complications the metabolic syndrome

Syndrome X has a variety of complications. The most serious of these is the development of atherosclerosis and from the resulting number of other problems – heart attack (myocardial infarction), angina pectoris, stroke, peripheral arterial disease (ischaemia).

These complications are indeed influenced by drugs, but not vyřešitelné. The basic nature of the disease is incurable. Complications disease are essentially in the clinical picture of the disease, until the problems with which the patient comes to the doctor. For example, a patient may come with having chest pains or even undergo a heart attack, you may have trouble breathing, zadýchává to be tired, may be in pain or fatigue limbs dependent on physical activity (claudication pain) and many more, which can be combined with other systemic disease patient.

Other Names: Reaven’s syndrome, syndrome X, plirimetabolický Syndrome, Insulin Resistance Syndrome, Dysmetabolic Syndrome

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