Description malaria

Malaria is a seizure disorder, which can seriously threaten human life. Annually ill with malaria and 300 million people mostly from poor countries (there are not enough drugs or substances on the prevention of malaria) – die annually one million patients.

Until appeared real cause of the disease (parasite transmitted by mosquito Anopheles) physicians believed it was caused by smelly swamps. With this assumption is called mal – aria or bad air.

The true cause was discovered in 1880. It is a disease that occurs mainly in the tropics and subtropics, but its presence also extends to temperate. Among the states with the highest risk of infection are: Cambodia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Liberia, Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, Malawi, Ivory Coast, Sierra Leone, Guinea and Myanmar. In the temperate zone are mostly isolated cases where the disease spreads from an infected individual or malarial zone occurs around major airports, where the parasite is introduced in the plane, then we talk about. Airport malaria.

Malaria is a disease caused by microscopic parasite belonging between aconoidasida(Haemosporina), Plasmodium, which is a large order of several micrometers (m). This parasite goes through a complex development cycle. Completes its development in the body of female Anopheles mosquito.

The man he serves as an intermediate host and infects the sucking female Anopheles mosquitoes, which transmit the infectious stage (sporozoite) contained in the salivary glands of the mosquito into the human bloodstream. Transmission is also possible transfusion.

In the circulation of man then undergoes a series of reproductive cycles. First cycles are no symptoms (asymptomatic) in the liver cells (specifically in the liver parenchyma) where they can survive long term. From then infects red blood cells (erythrocytes) human, which extend further propagation cycles. After some time in the blood begin to explore the sexual stages of the parasite (gametocytes) that initiate further developments after sucking mosquito infected human blood.

Symptoms of the disease may occur from 10 days to several months after being bitten by mosquitoes.

Malaria can be divided into three groups according to the type of parasite: tropical malaria(Plasmodium falciparum) malaria three days (Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium ovale) and a four-day malaria, formerly called čtvrtodenní chills (Plasmodium malariae).

The most serious is a tropical disease malaria, which threatens man’s life. Severe is because the red blood cells tend to stick to (adhesion) to the vessel wall and progressively damage the mechanism internal organs. This leads to blockage (obstruction) arteries with serious consequences for them fed organs (especially brain and kidney).

Malaria is one of the top five deaths in children and newborns in the world. Malaria in children causes low birth weight and premature births in pregnancy. These newborns or children infected later after suffering from anemia (lack hemoglobionu in the blood that carries oxygen), epilepsy(neurological illness with typical seizures) or other neurological problems often associated with brain damage.


Risk factors for malaria

The actual risk factor is staying in a malarial area, or even contact with an already infected person. The biggest risk is then naskytuje in individuals who are not vaccinated against malaria (especially the natives, as states they do not have the money), pregnant women, over which infects the fetus and children.


prevention of malaria

In tropical areas, malaria is particularly dangerous for pregnant women and very young children.Otherwise, the population living in these areas is rather less intense and short-term course of the disease, since acquired partial immunity repeatedly proděláváním disease.

The most important thing is prevention for people traveling to malarial areas. These people arevaccinated at specially set of tropical diseases, especially malaria. However, due to the rapidly advancing parasite resistance to anti-malarial drugs (antimalarials), it is becoming increasingly problematic.

This is called chemoprophylaxis Prevention – involves both medication and mosquito measures.Taking drugs is important to start before leaving malarial area, during the stay and after returning back home. For these drugs it is very important to follow the exact hour doses daily administration.

Antimalarials must not be used during pregnancy because they have adverse effects on the fetus.

An effective measure is to avoid stabbing Anopheles mosquitoes, which are most active after dusk and during the night. It is advisable to sleep under mosquito nets, use repellents, mosquito disposed of at the point of sleep using insecticides).


Signs and symptoms of malaria

The first symptoms always occur first week to 10days after infection because the incubation period is usually 1-2 weeks, but the onset of the disease can stretch for several months (mainly by Plasmodium vivax).

The actual symptoms of malaria are very nonspecific. These include headache, sensitivity to light(photophobia), muscle pain, nausea (feeling sick) and vomiting (vomiting). Therefore, malaria always remember when was the possibility of infecting the victim (residence in tropical regions, meeting with an infected person, etc.).

Main symptoms characteristic of malaria bout of malaria, where red blood cells (RBCs) filled with parasites burst. With this phenomenon starting to feel a sudden chill and shivering (this takes about 10-15 minutes) and immediately followed by a high fever lasting 2-6 hours (may be more).After overcoming a massive fever occurs (profusní) sweating.

In the aftermath of the seizure the patient feel healthy until another attack occurs. These seizures without treatment repeated regularly for several weeks to months, gradually fading intensity.

A general phenomenon for malaria, anemia (low red blood cell of cracking). For people who are healthy prior to infection with malaria three-day or four-day course is usually benign (harmless).

Most of the symptoms of this disease and damage to the host – humans – is caused more by the reaction of the human organism to the presence of the parasite than the parasite itself.

The basic diagnosis is microscopically in a doctor’s lab where he determines the presence of parasites on the blood smear or drip using dyes. Of Blood This method can also determine the type of parasite. This test must be repeated several times in order to determine the stage of the parasite and the extension of the disease. Beyond this, there are many diagnostic serology and molecular biological methods.


treatment of malaria

Importantly immediate deployment treatment at first signs and suspected malaria, although microscopic disease would be even negative. Infections due to malaria parasite are life threatening and in any event required hospitalization!

A classic and initially primarily used is an alkaloid from the bark of the cinchona tree – quinine,generally known its effect – perspiration, reduction of temperature, were later developed chemical preparations.

Currently, the usual treatment of the basic drug administration of chloroquine for which, however, is already very widespread resistance. Secondly, the administered quinine sulfate or Daraprim (drug pyrimethamine).

Furthermore, the use of substances such as artesunate, halofantrine, atovaquone, proguanil, arthemeter, arthemisin.

During the three-day malaria treatment should be administered even antirelapsový (to prevent recurrence of the disease) preparation primaquine (drug primaquine).

Currently, the research vaccination in some countries already vaccinate.


How can I help myself

What is important is prevention, which consists in the right dress and shoes especially at dusk, when mosquitoes fly out of their hiding places. Therefore, it is recommended to dusk nevyskytovat outside. They are used at night protective nets over the bed – mosquito.

Today, with so called. Prophylaxis – a form of “vaccination”, which is already before staying in a malarial area are taking medications that are taken during your stay and several weeks after the stay. It is important to take these drugs in its hour of every day, they do not lose effect. With this disease is not to be trifled with, so if you suspect that you have malaria (stay in the tropics, the possibility of infection from infected persons etc.) seek medical attention immediately !!!


complications of malaria

Complications occur mainly in tropical malaria and are life-threatening. These include cerebral malaria, swelling (edema), pulmonary, low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), renal tubular necrosis(death of “tubes” in the kidney that are piped renal blood).

In children complication occurring in malaria also four days when stored antigen-antibody complexes on the walls of small blood vessels in the kidneys, which can cause chronic, irreversible changes in the organism.

Other names: tropical malaria, tropical diseases, malaria three-day, four-day malaria

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