Lyme disease

Lyme disease

Description of Lyme disease

Lyme disease is a disease affecting multiple systems (polysystémové disease), especially the skin, nervous system,joints and heart.

The disease is a bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. It is spirally coiled movable bacterium belonging to the spirochetes (together with the originator of syphilis). Borrelia are found naturally in small mammals and deer. Transmitting to humans is the tick (Ixodes ricinus). The infection occurs either by tick bites an infected or vškrabáním his feces or crushed pieces of the body.

The Czech Republic is approximately 5-10% of infected ticks, in some places up to 30%. When a tick infected tick infection occurs in 30% of people, of which about 5-10% of them develop symptoms.

The disease is relatively lengthy, it may take several weeks to several years. Every year featured several thousand illnesses.


Risk factors for Lyme disease

Risk factors include picnics (in the wooded grassy terrain) in the summer months, especially in areas promořených ticks.

Furthermore, here we can include failure to comply with generally applicable principles of protection from ticks in nature, ie. Not using appropriate protective clothing – long pants, boots and full-use repellent.

After returning from nature unnoticed by a tick and its late or eliminate wasteful.


Prevention of Lyme disease

Regarding prevention, it is rather unspecific. The most effective vaccination could be what is needed in klíšťovky (Central European meningoencephalitis), a disease transmitted by ticks also. This option but unfortunately at present for Lyme disease in our country does not yet exist (in the US market the vaccine, but it is specific to the local species of bacteria, our absolutely does not work).

Therefore, it is necessary to exercise caution during their stay in the countryside. Ticks usually reside in overgrown meadows of tall grass stalks. Therefore, it is good to such terrain rather avoid.

Before visiting the forest to use repellents and wear appropriate, better light (ticks are easier to see on it) clothing including a hat, long sleeves, gloves, long pants, shoes higher.

After returning home, it is important to properly immediately tězkontrolovat celélo. The longer a tick přisáté, the more it increases the risk of infection. Because ticks tolerate drought, it is good to put clothes in which you are in the woods were in the dryer.

In the case of finding a tick, it is necessary to remove it immediately. Remove it with tweezers,avoid touching your bare hands. Instead of přisátým tick disinfect Jodisol. After drying disinfection grasp tick tweezers as close to the skin, to him caught nearer to the head and gentle rocking and slowly moving it tries to pull in order to tear off the head. Then disinfect the wound again. If the head remains in the skin, pour on it a little further disinfection. It should dry and fall off itself, there is no need to panic. At most, the place can become inflamed and then head maturate. Borrelia resides in the digestive tract (abdomen) tick. After you have removed it from the header are no longer threatened greater risk of infection.


Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease

Symptoms may be expressed differently. Approximately 5-10% of people infected ticks are infected do not show symptoms or are not so mild that they did not give greater emphasis. The disease can be divided into three stages. But not every patient will experience all stages, it is very individual.

The first stage is characterized by the emergence of the so-called. Erythema chronicum migrans.After an incubation period (time from infection to appearance of tick first symptom), which can take 14 to 23 days appears red circular speckle in the place where the tick.

It can also reach more than 5 cm in diameter, the center is faded, it may SCALED. It’s painless.Within weeks disappears and then can be (in higher numbers) to several days reappear, but in another place and usually less.

These changes may disappear within a week, or they may persist for several months, rarely year.Simultaneously with the appearance of the first drop of the hat may be present and other flu-likesymptoms, mainly fever, fatigue, headache, muscle aches and back pain, nausea and swollen lymph nodes.

Some patients in other stages of the formation of erythema migrans or do not.

The second stage is manifested neurological and cardiac impairment. The Czech Republic is a very common central nervous system – neuroborreliosis.

It occurs when there especially in children non-purulent meningitis (aseptic meningitis) presenting with headache, vomiting, photophobia, nervousness, tingling in hands, feet and called. Příznaky- objective meningeal eg. Inability to bend his head and chin to touch the breasts, inflammation nerve roots (meningoradikulitida) – paresis of cranial nerves, limbs various movement disorders, especially peripheral limbs and sensitivity changes.

Any paresis (paralysis), facial nerve is a drop in the corner of mouth and lower eyelid on one side of the face.

Generally may be present intense pain in the back, between the shoulder blades, changes in skin sensitivity, tingling or burning in the extremities, and muscle twitching.

In the second stage is sometimes affected his heart. It may disturb the rhythm of the heartbeat, which manifest feelings palpitations.

In addition to neurological and cardiac symptoms were observed more and more skin manifestations.For example, reddish swelling on the earlobe, nipple or scrotum (borrelian lymphocytes).

After a long time (months to years), yet the disease may go into a so-called. The third stage,whose manifestations are not given only to bacteria but also those involving immune mechanisms of defense against borreliím leading to exaggerated to inappropriate immune responses (immunopathology).

Changes occur in various organs. Most commonly on the skin and joints. Called. Acrodermatitis atrophicans the skin manifestations of chronic borreliosis especially for women. Can arise even after 10 years of infection. Mainly affects the soles of the feet and palms of the hands and sometimes the face. Affected skin areas are very thin, having the character of cigarette paper with veins showing through.

What concerns joints, they are affected mainly the large joints (knee, shoulder, elbow). Aches andswollen joints.


Treatment of Lyme disease

Because it is a bacterial disease, drugs of choice are antibiotics (doxycycline, amoxicillin, erythromycin, ceftriaxone). With treatment should begin as soon as possible to prevent progression of the disease to other stages. From the beginning of the treatment takes place at home where you take antibiotics for about three weeks as a tablet.

In case it does not work, or the patient comes to the first stage and observed has been developed e.g. neuroborreliosis, it is necessary to administer large doses of antibiotic in the form of infusions, and that’s question must be hospitalized for two weeks to one month. In addition to antibiotics are administered and medication to relieve symptoms. Prescribed painkillers, anti-inflammation, swelling.

Of whether there is a complete cure, we can not say in advance. It’s very individual, someone can heal completely, someone may show the consequences of even a few years after infection. Mostly in the form of joint or skin problems. And even when a person once had a Disease, it does not mean that it can not infect again.


How can I help myself

Cure foundation represents the removal of bacteria from the body. This ensures antibiotics.

On the overall support of the body during treatment or any auxiliary treatment of consequences there are several domestic advice. In addition to a healthy diet includes a change in eating habits and indulging in regular sports activities are advised to consume plenty of garlic, B-complex vitamins, green tea, bee pollen. They help to regenerate damaged tissue and support the immune system.


Complications of Lyme disease

In the event that the disease was not treated in time, can go into stages of developing long-term consequences. Among the most common chronic inflammation of the knee joint, disorders of peripheral nerves and facial nerve.

Leads to disorders of cardiac rhythm and consequences of the central nervous system, manifesting especially memory disorders, or even its failures, reducing the ability of concentration and attention, mood swings and, ultimately, changes in sleep.

Other names: Lyme disease, Lyme disease, Lyme disease, Lyme disease, neuroborreliosis

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