Description lice

Lice, or pediculosis Two kinds of lice Head lice and its life cycleSpread all the parents and child with pediculosis


Lice, or pediculosis

When we talk about lice infestation portable parasitic diseases.Can affect humans, regardless of their age or gender. Typically, lice infestation, however, occurs in children of compulsory basic schooling, the more susceptible they are to girls. The disease is in compliance with generally accepted principles of delousing usually uncomplicated and his mastery is a matter of 14 days. There are, however, excluded some complications, which are discussed below.

Unpleasant aspect for the patient, mainly for the child, isolation from the children’s collective in time coping, lengthy procedures mechanical removal (of combing) lice and their eggs, called. Nits, and itching caused by a stabbing motion parasite.

Due to lack of awareness of the general public about the problem with all this disease and psychological facets, including feelings of guilt, shame and social exclusion. However, as seen from the following text, the level of hygiene specific individuals or families of pediculosis definitely related.

The disease is widespread worldwide without regard to the maturity of the respective countries. Only a negligible number of diseased is actually registered children and other doctors.

Preparations for killing lice are available without a prescription, and just track the number of packs sold these products are used to estimate the incidence of the disease. In recent years, in the CR annually sold such packages several tens of thousands. In the first half of the nineties, this was annually several hundred thousand products.

This increase was caused by genetic mutations in the DNA of lice, which were caused by an increase in parasite resistance to standard drugs used (here insecticides, insect control agents).This vicious cycle that begins with the emergence of resistance to the old drug, continued introduction of new drugs and ends again spread parasites resistant to drug new, in the case of all the repeats after 10-15 years.

To prevent this adverse phenomenon can be increased by offering various active ingredients in pharmaceuticals, and the use of plant operating on a different principle than insecticides (see. Below).


Two kinds of lice

On human parasites are two basic types of lice. This is a head louse (Pediculus capitis) live on the scalp and body louse (Pediculus humanus), who lives in lingerie and related areas of the human body.

Both types are visually identical and differ primarily in genetic information, they are equipped.Despite the similarity of any kind always prey on the site (or vice versa hair, hair and underwear), which is typical for his style and can not climb to the second location.

Only the body louse is associated with poor hygiene. They had threatened those who nesvléknou long underwear (even at night) and do not change it for a clean, properly laundered.

In contrast Head lice survive reliably all acts hygiene, a head washing and combing of conventional comb. Outside hair (eg. On fabric) usually does not survive longer than a day. It is indeed evident that the level of hygiene occurrence all unrelated. With this fact the patient and his familiar surroundings.


Head lice and its life cycle

Female adult lice moving hair starts several hours after coupling to lay eggs (nits). These nits stick to the hair close to the skin with a special, very effective adhesive which is protein in nature.Resistant to water, shampoo and combing hair comb normal. Claiming that the nits stick to the hair dyed, it is wrong, or rather, not always true. Therefore, the liquidation of all the staining of hair is not deemed sufficient measure.

Nits can be found normally in the countries behind earlobes and neck. Of nits after 8-10 days hatched larvae (nymphs) that are similar to adults already everything. They are immediately able to sting and suck blood. After three nymph undressing is again in about 8 days turns into an adult flea. It lives for maximum another 30 days, for which, however, can lay several tens nits.


the spread of lice

Louse always remains in contact with human hair and spontaneously abandons them. The transfer must be direct and not fleeting contact the hair of the patient and a healthy person, which occurs mainly in children in collective work at school, at play, etc.

An adult louse crawling simply “transgresses” to a new host, which puts new life nits and the cycle repeats. Transferring air is not possible. Long discussed the possibility of transmission to articles, eg. On the ridges, but according to the latest publications seems quite unlikely. More likely is transmission through fabrics (hats, towels, bedding, upholstery), in which the village was captured.If in time to touch the fabric of human hair, louse can thus colonize a new host. Does not, however, much time. Once the parasite comes out of the host, will lose their livelihoods. Several hours is dehydrated and exhausted, lose the ability to suck and then also move. Hyne to about 24 hours after the last intake, with decreasing ambient temperature, however, this period may be extended.

Favorable environment for the spread of lice are all groups of children, whether it is a regular school and leisure activities or one-off events such as summer camps and sports training. Children are at work, play or dance unconsciously touch their heads – this is why the incidence of the most common among girls aged 6 to 10 years who approach each other more often than boys, and transfer them they supported long hair. Usual, and basically almost certain to also transfer between siblings, especially if they share a common bed.


Parents and child with pediculosis

If parents find that their child has lice, he must report this fact at school and in the communitywhere the child during the last two weeks moved. Sick child should not be sent to a children group (school, kids camp) until the parents carry out the removal of crawling lice and nits (they must be destroyed all the nits stuck on the hair at a distance of 0-10 mm from the skin).

Schools and other institutions are obliged by the occurrence of lice in the team to inform parents of the other children. For those on the spot to carry out regular checks on the scalp every 2 days for about 3 weeks.


Symptoms of infection with lice, nits and lice appearance

In a period of one to four weeks after infection (patient contact) with effect itching and burning scalp. These feelings are caused by stabbing, uplift and movement of nymphs and adult lice.Excitingly also operates a solvent that louse discharged into the skin when sucking. Can induce a variety of allergic reactions from local (rash, overall redness and intense itching) to total (allergic asthma).

The patient is uneasy and restless, constantly scratching. Laceration of the skin may lead to the entry of bacteria into its deeper layers and cause an inflammatory disease of the skin (impetigo et al.). Rarely can observe a slight rise in body temperature and increase local nodes.

Nits appear as miniature pouches attached to the hair, usually whitish gloss. Their size is about 1 mm. Unlike dandruff is not washed away or blow away. Removable only mechanically. Nits located on the hair more than 1 cm from the skin are hatched or dead, because the hair grows about 1 cm per month and this time exceeds the duration of the life cycle of lice. Conversely finding nits closer to the skin means that the hair are probably moving adult lice.

Adult louse has brown trickle elongated body with a length of only 2-4 mm with three pairs of legs which are attached to the hair shaft. In the early stage of development of the disease will be found in the hair up to two dozen crawling lice in the case continue without treatment, then up to several hundred individuals.


lice treatment

Treatment will begin only if the hair crawling find adult lice. In accordance with this finding should be single hair (especially for auricle and nape) found nits located close (under 1 cm) to the skin.

Child to solve the problem not a children group.

If a sick man or boy, the simplest solution, ie haircuts at length below 1 cm. In such short hair lice can not live.

If this solution is inappropriate, eg. In girls, proceed as follows:
At the pharmacy we buy medicine against lice. It is available without a prescription and the customer has a choice basically two options.

The first one is buying shampoo or spray with an insecticide developed against lice, parasites that kill nerve paralysis of their work.

The second option is more natural products with oily substances that clog all airways. Recently, it seems preferable to the latter compositions, since it is possible that they were resistant lice and their use does not increase with resistance (see. Above). Not to be harmful to the scalp and hair.The product will use as directed on the package.

The procedure can be repeated even after 8-10 days, because most of kill nits. The purpose of reusing the liquidation of all that could eventually could emerge from the undamaged nits (see. Lifecycle lice).

Further treatment will support the so-called combing hair. Všiváčkem, which is very thick ridge, which is available in pharmacy or medicine that is packaged with lice.

Combed the lice and nits let it fall on the white paper or into the sink and then eliminated (wash down).

Nits, which was impossible to comb, we can remove small scissors and a nap. Eggs mounted far away from the skin (more than 1 cm with a dead or hatched nits) let her hair grow out. After removing all suspicious nits and lice crawling baby can be sent to the team.

Attention! Insecticidal preparations are aggressive substances. It must be used in strict accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions, especially observe the dosage. Perish if lice after application, then it was probably a lice resistant to that chemical. Talk to your pharmacist who will sell you a product containing a different active pickle. In any case, do not increase the dose, the patient would hurt, not everything.

For the treatment principle may be used kerosene! While it is effective, but any allergic reaction to it may endanger the patient’s life.


complications lice

Children are usually restless and can not sleep in young children may be given to hystericsscratching.

Your doctor may prescribe a drug that relieves itching child and reassure them. In the first place, however, it is the fastest lice, which itself provides relief.

Rozdrásáním skin when scratching is created gateway for infection. It may appear as local skin inflammation. Although unusual, louse can transmit bacterial or viral disease which occur locally or overall disease organism. When in doubt, always consult your doctor.

Other names: pediculosis, lice, lice infection

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