Description of leptospirosis

Is a disease caused by infection microbe named Leptospira. It is a bacterium that has a spiral shape and is related to and Borrelia spirochetes.

There are a number of these microorganisms in humans but dangerous leptospirosis, which belongs to the group of Leptospira interrogans.

This disease is so called. Antopozoonózy, which are diseases that are transmitted from animals to humans (another example is borreliosis). Sick animals (often rodents – rats, mice, cattle, pigs) is excreted in the urine of these microbes in the environment, which this infests infectious urine (contaminates) and becomes a dangerous source of infection for humans.

There are several possible ways you can become infected.

Most often, a person comes into contact with water, soil or even food, which was a sick animal is polluted (contaminated). In this way leptospirosis they reach the digestive tract and penetrate intact mucosa in the human body.

Sometimes even just small quantities of polluted water which will “splash into the eye”, since these microorganisms can get into the body and the conjunctiva. Or unknowingly curl water while bathing in nature. Also, it is not good to get in contact with mud or moist soil, especially if you’re on your feet rub or otherwise broken skin.

Another possible way the disease is, if you are bitten or scratched sick animal.

Previously, this disease has occurred largely as a professional infection. Often sick people who could due to the nature of their profession come into contact with Leptospira – butchers, animal husbandry, farmers, sewer workers, .. Today, with the development of a very popular camping, country cottage, fishing, conduct various domestic animals and the like. Leptospirosis can affect virtually everyone.

Although it is one of the most common infections transmitted from animals to humans, transmission from human to human has not been demonstrated. It follows that if someone in your neighborhood has leptospirosis, do not worry that you catch it from him.

Risk factors for leptospirosis

Leptospirosis are most threatened by people who work with animals that can secrete leptospirosis.

They are mainly farmers and animal science, working in livestock production, as well as butchers.

Among the common carriers of the disease among rodents, especially rats omnipresent. For this reason, then the other vulnerable groups include professional exterminator and workers sewers, but also residents of homes where there are rats. Leptospirosis but does not carry the “wild” rats, living freely, because they can infect the medical orderlies laboratory “clean” rats.
Infected animals can contaminate their urine virtually anything with which it comes into contact.Leptospirosis in the wild survive quite well, so if you are staying in the countryside, you should avoid drinking water from wells, swimming in stagnant water, eating unwashed fruits or vegetables from the garden, walking barefoot in the mud or moist soil like.

prevention of leptospirosis

Prevention consists of rodenticides, which are encountered in closed buildings (extermination).

At hazardous workplaces is essential to maintaining work safety regulations and consistently use the job aids.

While staying in the countryside, you should follow basic hygiene rules – Use safe water and avoid drinking water from natural sources (it can also occur randomly, if you curl while bathing), is also not advisable to swim in natural pools. It should be a good wash all the seasonings you have collected or picked in the wild.

symptoms of leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is a disease characterized by multiple symptoms may even be totally concealed (inapparent). A number of symptoms of leptospirosis is the same for other common diseases, so it is sometimes really hard to arrive at a correct diagnosis.

How the disease occurs, depending on the age and condition of the individual, the type of leptospirosis which infected organism and the number of microbes that penetrate the body.

Leptospirosis can be done easily with symptoms lasting only a few days, which greatly resemble the flu.

Generally it is but a two-phase course of the disease. (Ie. Blaťácká respectively. Field, again fever)

After an incubation time (which is the time that elapses from infection to the first signs of infection) 1-2 weeks to develop the first phase of the illness.

In the first phase, the patient suddenly develop a fever up to 40 ° C with chills and shivering, sick suffering from severe headache, muscle pain – muscle aches mainly on the back and calves.Sometimes rash, usually during the first two days of the disease. They are present abdominal pain and nausea, which can lead to vomiting. Sick in a bad mood, hallucinates, is confused. Sometimes occur even psychotic symptoms – hallucinations, personality changes and violence. Thus, the disease occurs 3-5 days and suddenly all symptoms disappear. The patient seemed suddenly healed.

The second phase is sometimes not even developed, but if the infection is severe disease after a few days back again along with the original symptoms, to which are added chest pain and abdominal, kidney function and mental status changes. There is a solidification of the neck, the patient vomits – are therefore shown signs of meningitis. Although the disease is relatively serious, after several weeks, with a good treatment will modify the state of health without sequelae. Such courses of leptospirosis caused by Leptospira grippotyphosa.

If the organism is infected with a particularly aggressive form called leptospirosis. Leptospirrou icterohaemorhagiae or a weakened individuals, the disease is gaining fast. Symptoms of the disease are the same as during light, but have a greater intensity. Rapidly developing impaired individual organ: liver (appears hepatitis), kidney (renal patient ceases to urinate, has an increased amount of waste materials – urea and creatinine – in the blood), a disorder of blood coagulation, which results in bleeding from the mouth, beneath the conjunctiva – so the whites of the eyes are colored red, the mucous membranes – blood appears in the stool, there is bleeding from the nose.Thus, the current leptospirosis is known as Weil’s disease. This condition is very serious, requiring intensive treatment in hospital. .

diagnosis of leptospirosis

If the sick come to their doctor with the aforementioned symptoms, very often the disease may be at least initially mistaken for the flu.

Very important is the indication of contact with animals, which may cause the development of diseases or picnics, when a person becomes infected often while bathing or drinking from natural sources. This fact helps doctors on the disease not to think, because in comparison with influenza, which has substantially the same symptoms with leptospirosis often occur. So if you lived in the countryside, especially bathed, fished and drank water from wells, or come in contact with animals or worked in the fields, be sure to tell the doctor!

For the proof of leptospirosis it is necessary to perform special laboratory tests, which are based on the presence of typical antibodies. When the disease was found at the beginning (the first 10 days) can be leptospirosis called. Cultivate, which means that the sample of urine, blood or cerebrospinal fluid and it is transferred to a special environment (culture medium), where leptospires thrive. After that time the culture medium for leptospirosis propagates, a microbiologist (physician dealing with the recognition of microorganisms) able to say what the microbes involved.

It also organizes a series of tests that are used to provide information on the various bodies, both from the blood, but also other bodily secretions, particularly urine. Investigates mainly liver and kidney functions, which are usually affected.

treatment of leptospirosis

Therapy of disease depends on its severity. If it is a leptospirosis, having a light course, treated so.Symptomatically. This means that the patient is administered drugs that help him to get rid of unpleasant and removable disease symptoms.

To reduce fever and relieve fever and chills are put antipyretics against headache and muscle pain analgesics. Furthermore administered antibiotics, usually in tablet form. The patient treated at home, has been advised bed rest, receiving enough fluids.

If the disease runs hard and / or are developing symptoms of organ damage (jaundice appears, the patient ceases to urinate, changing level of consciousness), it is imperative to be immediately admitted to hospital for treatment. They are administered first, antibiotics, and intravenously, as known. Causal therapy (treatment is focused on the cause of the disease, in this case infection Leptospira) Furthermore, a range of drugs and, if necessary, devices accesses called. Supportive therapy, which serves to ensure good function of damaged organs eg. in renal dialysis, while hemorrhagic manifestations filing blood substitutes, in case of failure of respiratory ventilation, until, when the patient overcome the critical period and the function of damaged organs are restored.

How to help treat leptospirosis

If you are sick leptospirosis, how many times do not even need to know. Very often, if the disease runs slightly, it can be confused with flu, so I approached him.

However, if the course of the disease worse, it is necessary to consult a doctor duly inform him about any symptoms and possible connections with the disease, which will help him to think of the correct diagnosis and start treatment with appropriate severity of medical condition.

complications of leptospirosis

A disease that was slightly usually does not leave absolutely no ill effects and is soon “fit”. A much longer period of recovery (recovery) followed after severe course of leptospirosis. Sam bacteria after antibiotic treatment deploy quickly eradicated, but it takes time before a recovery of the affected organs – liver, kidney, heart. Sometimes, when the disease is very difficult, their function is to return the original state. It is not uncommon that patients suffer from frequent mood swings and depression.

Other names: Weil’s disease, blaťácká (field, again) fever, a disease of swine feeding

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