Description laryngitis

Larynx, its function and structure of various forms of laryngitis

Laryngitis is a generic term for inflammatory diseases of the larynx (lat. Larynx), which can affect all age groups. With regard to the degree of invasion of microbe into the wall of the larynx, the patient’s age and overall health, can take different forms, from mild ailments to life-threatening events. In terms of length during laryngitis can be divided into acute and chronic.

The cause of inflammation is often a virus (to includeparainfluenza viruses, influenza virus, RS et al.). Often viral inflammation subsequently degraded by secondary colonization by bacteria that are otherwise healthy airways without symptoms are present (Haemophilus influenzae, streptococci, staphylococci).Without a previous viral inflammation can cause diseases such.Chlamydia pneumoniae or Corynebacterium diphtheriae(diphtheria, viz. Below).

Laryngitis rarely appears alone, often is caught in a file with the disease are higher or lower sections of the airways. Spoken then the downlink infections (inflammation of the larynx was transferred from inflamed nasal mucosa, paranasal sinuses, pharynx) and uplink (spreading upward from the bronchi and trachea).


Larynx, its function and structure

For a further description of laryngitis and distribute their hazard is appropriate to describe the basic anatomy of the larynx. Air drawn in through the nose when inhaling first flows common areas of the digestive and respiratory tract (pharynx). At the lower end of the pharynx, the two paths diverge.Food goes into the stomach through the esophagus, air enters through the hole (entrance aditus laryngeal) to the larynx. Said opening is connected to the flap (epiglottis) that it closes upon ingestion of food to bite not get into the respiratory tract.

Larynx, which starts and ends with connection entrance to the trachea, the tube is surrounded by a system of cartilage and fibrous membranes. It also includes the ligaments voice (vocal or glottis), which are associated with cartilage. The presence of muscle allows you to change the status of voice ligament and a slot sets the basic tone of voice in the formation. Whereas the vocal cords are located at half the height of the larynx, the doctor divides the subglottic space (below the vocal cords, closer to the trachea) and the supraglottic (above the vocal cords, closer supralaryngeal and příklopce).

The inner lumen of the larynx is formed by padding and underneath connective tissue is located, which, due to its sparse nature of the ability to absorb large amounts of liquid (swell) to the lumen of the larynx may be closed completely (there is choking).


Various forms of laryngitis

As already noted, the progress of the disease affects it, how deep wall of the larynx, the infectious agent penetrated. Disability, only the surface of the lining is characterized by catarrhal inflammation (rich mucus). This form of laryngitis does not compromise on human life and requires immediate medical intervention.

Disability deeper structures leads to swelling and thereby narrowing of paths for air (stenosing laryngitis). Among stenosing laryngitis include. Subglottic laryngitis, manifested most often in children aged 6 months to 3 years and supraglottic laryngitis or epiglottitis (acute inflammation caused by the bacteria Haemophilus epiglot influenzace type b), which affects children of preschool age. Both of these diseases are acute conditions emerging suddenly and require distinct approaches already in the prehospital phase (see symptoms and first aid).

Among stenosing laryngitis also include so-called. Laryngotrachebronchitis pseudomembranacea, a common inflammation of the bronchi, trachea and larynx, characterized by the formation of membranes that narrow lumen breathing tube. This disease typically develops on the basis of previous purulent inflammation caused by viruses and only the subsequent colonization of the airways with bacteria. The development of this disease has an acute character.

For completeness, it is also appropriate to remember diphtheria (diphtheria croup laryngeal), wherein formation pablán causes bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae without previous virus infection. Due to mandatory vaccination, the disease is nowadays more than rare.

Chronic laryngitis formed on the basis of chronic inflammation of various parts of the respiratory tract (already mentioned downward and upward character inflammation), as well as long-term overloading of the vocal cords (singers) or exhibiting respiratory adverse physical and chemical stimuli (smoking, stay in a dusty environment, inhalation of toxic vapors and others. ). Their effect is retreat or conversely hypertrophy of chronic irritation of tissue (eg. The formation of polyps vocal cords called. Singers’ nodules, etc.).


Risk factors laryngitis

The airways are susceptible to damage by physical and chemical factors.

The same is the case with the larynx, the tissue may also be mechanically damaged, ie voice surges (singers, sports fans and professional speakers and hysterical people).

The emergence of catarrhal laryngitis are therefore at risk of those who reside in distinctly cold, hot, dry and dusty. Likewise, the inflammation can contribute inhalation of toxic gases or vapors, smoking and significant one-time or long-term abuse of alcohol and drugs (the typical morning hoarseness after a boisterous parties).

Furthermore, risk factor, of course, contact with the microbes which are able to cause inflammation of the larynx.

As with other diseases, the long-term stress and exhaustion reduces the level of immune defense. The sum of the above factors increases the likelihood of laryngitis.


prevention of laryngitis

Prevention is naturally avoidance described risk factors. People who are exposed to unfavorable conditions in employment, would fundamentally not underestimate the use of protective equipment (respiratory masks simple in construction, manufacturing dusty etc.), Otherwise the development of chronic laryngitis as an occupational disease.

It is necessary moderation in alcohol consumption and smoking, voices professionals should pay sufficient attention to the hygiene of the vocal tract.

At the time the highest incidence of laryngitis (in the fall and early spring), it is appropriate to increase the consumption of fruits rich in vitamins or vitamin preparations reap the benefits as a dietary supplement.

In cold weather are advised to avoid mouth breathing or breathe through a scarf or coat collar (air heating) is beneficial hearty drink hot drinks.

It is necessary to pay attention to all the inflammation of the airways and properly treat(nowadays people often deliberately omitted the most important part of the healing process, therefore, rest), otherwise it may be ascending or descending path jeopardize other parts of the respiratory tract.


Symptoms of laryngitis and first aid for acute conditions

For nestenózujících laryngitis is a leading symptom cough and dry up burning in the throat. The cough is initially dry, irritable and unproductive (without mucus production), later coughing upphlegm. Furthermore, the present hoarseness, which may in the case of pseudomembranous laryngitis (see. Above) to move the voiceless. When coughing membranes with limited voice quality returns and the cycle repeats continuously. Fever may be present, usually the temperature is only slightly elevated (38 ° C).

The development of the symptoms of Croup (see. Above) occur at night (reported approximately around midnight) without any signs of illness had to be present before bedtime. Typical is frightened expression of a child choking and audible whistling inhale and retracting well below the Adam’s apple. The condition is accompanied by fever, cough štěkavým, elevated temperature. If the narrowing of the larynx pronounced, begins to exhibit insufficient tissue oxygenation. Increases the heart rate, the lips and earlobes can be seen promodrávání.

Although it may be for some time to improve, to develop the above symptoms always call an ambulance. Is required hospitalization and transport in this case should be conducted by ambulance accompanied by a doctor.

On epiglottitis are thinking if the patient is a child aged 6 months to 7 years, the symptoms develop very rapidly (reported in several tens of minutes), and are similar to symptoms of Croup.Unlike her, however Avoid couching child has a fever (above 39 ° C) is not able to swallow saliva and searches sitting position.

It is a life-threatening condition directly. Immediately call an ambulance, the child must maintain the sitting position, which itself looks! Let the child breathe the cold to frigid air (in winter open window, open in summer fridge and freezer). Sami not transported to the hospital.


treatment of laryngitis

Therapeutic procedure in purulent laryngitis is usually determined by the ENT physician based laryngoskopického examination.

Treatment is directed against symptoms (filing depressants dry cough, the next stage drugsdissolving phlegm and facilitating its expectoration), also serves medication containing aspirin.The doctor may prescribe inhaled or locally-acting antibiotics are administered in a spray.

Considering the most frequent origin of laryngitis (viruses) to prescribe antibiotics only rarely, such as when significant debilitation, if there is secondary bacterial colonization inflamed tissue and also with singers.

The proper cure is to be observed bedrest and fundamentally smoke! Status is adjusted in about a week.

Acute cases are the domain of the field of emergency medicine, the patient is then often placed in intensive care. According to necessity are already in the prehospital phase corticosteroids (but not in epiglottitis where almost ineffective) further sedatives and antibiotics venous route in high doses. In a certain percentage of patients it is necessary to secure the airway intubation or acute coniotomy.


How can I help myself

Treatment prescribed by doctors can promote staying in a reasonably warm, moist environments.Humidity in the room can be increased, for example by placing wet towels on the heating or using humidifiers.

It is advisable to drink more hot drinks (herbal teas are recommended for respiratory diseases) and mineral water for at least room temperature (preferably Vincentka).

Beneficial effect compresses on your neck and rest in bed. Verbal communication should be limited to the minimum necessary, whispering accelerates the healing of the vocal cords.


complications laryngitis

Untreated respiratory infections caused by viruses may be if they are ignored and inadequately treated by, exacerbated by bacterial secondary infection. Furthermore, the inflammation may spread in ascending or descending order and cause to lung disease. Long-term irritation of the larynx may be vitiated by chronic laryngitis acting permanent changes to the mucosa. In some cases, these changes can lead to cancer.

Other names: laryngitis, laryngitis, vocal cord inflammation, acute laryngitis, chronic laryngitis, laryngitis Subglottic

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