Lack of vitamins A, D, E, K

Lack of vitamins A, D, E, K

Description of the lack of vitamins A, D, E, K

Vitamins A, D, E, K are assigned to the group of fat soluble vitamins, called lipophilic. The most important common feature is the ability to store these vitamins into stocks with a later draw.The organism is not produced in sufficient quantities; therefore their intake of food.

There are two types of vitamin deficiency – vitamin deficiency and hypovitaminosis. Vitamin deficiency is a complete lack of vitamin A in our area is almost non-existent. Hypovitaminosis is with us on the contrary, quite often, and it is a partial deficiency of a vitamin.

Vitamin A (retinol)

Vitamin A is very important for our vision, helping to create visual pigments in the retina. Surely you home saying “Papej carrot, whether you have a vision as a feature,” and they were right. In the absence of this vitamin is in fact deteriorating night vision (ie. Night blindness), and in extreme cases can lead to blindness.
This vitamin also has a beneficial effect on the skin, keeping it healthy and slow the aging process. Another important role of vitamin A in the formation of sperm, eggs and fetal development.It also supports proper cell growth and function of the mucous membranes.

Vitamin A is among the important antioxidants – together with other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, zinc, copper, iron, manganese or selenium, helps to eliminate free radicals from the body. Assume the antitumor effects.

Hypovitaminosis, or vitamin deficiency, manifests night blindness, loss of appetite, impaired immune system and stunted growth. It appears too dry and peeling skin, diarrhea and stye. As vitamin A is responsible for proper cell mucosa occurs in its absence desiccation mucosa. Just because it threatens blindness due to corneal damage dry. We fortunately Such cases are rare, but in developing countries it is a complete lack of vitamin A most common culprit blindness.

A significant deficiency can also occur in the nervous system disorders and disorders of the bone.

Most vitamin A can be found in the following foods: liver, cod liver oil, carrots, spinach, cabbage, corn, cabbage, parsley, pumpkin, peppers, alfalfa, broccoli, peaches, apricots, melon, butter, milk, egg yolk …

If you are looking for a dietary supplement, the best you can find it in the form of provitamin A,beta-carotene. It is in the body changes as needed to vitamin A. It helps protect the skin from sunburn and many people also helps with the sun allergies. Overdose provitamin nearly danger, any excess is excreted in the urine.
Especially watch would have to vitamin A should give pregnant women because large doses may cause fetal harm. Dietary supplements are recommended only after consulting your doctor.

The recommended daily dose for healthy adults is about 750 micrograms per day, equivalent to about 50 grams of carrots. The recommended daily dose for a child ranges from 300-400 micrograms for pregnant and lactating women are about 1,200 micrograms per day.


Vitamin D is one of the most important vitamins for our bones. It keeps the correct value of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. It is required not only in the formation and mineralization of bone, but also in healing of the fracture. Vitamin D is a collection of chemically similar compounds, of which the most important for humans compound termed D3 or cholecalciferol (for plants importantly D2 = ergocalciferol).

Lack of vitamin D threaten people who for some reason, avoid the sun and also consume foods with this vitamin – one example is bedridden patients or old people with mobility problems. Suffer from this condition also people with kidney failure, the kidneys since it is necessary for the conversion of the vitamin to its active form.

Vitamin D deficiency in children

Vitamin D deficiency in children is dangerous because it can seriously harm the growth of bones, teeth and cartilage. It causes a disease known as rickets or rickets, the consequences of which are brittleness and bone deformity. Its name in the distant past, when the children of unknown causes contorted limbs.
The first symptoms is muscle weakness, slowed growth, apathy or irritability. In ignoring this problem will soon begin to break bones easily deform because of the bones begins to dominate the cartilaginous mass.

Vitamin D deficiency in adults

In adults, vitamin D deficiency leads to a disease called osteomalacia. Bones become brittle and fragile due to insufficient calcium deposition in bones. Inadequate calcium deposition causes their demineralization.

The main source of vitamin D is sunlight í. The skin is present its precursor (7-dehydrocholesterol), which is due to the action of sunlight converts to vitamin D3. But needless to exaggerate sunbathing, just expose to sunlight 5-15 minutes.

Vitamin D can be found mostly in oily fish such as sardines, salmon, herring and tuna, but also in liver, milk, eggs and margarine.

The recommended daily dose is about 5 micrograms per day. Increased intake of vitamin A is recommended during pregnancy (but beware of overdose should consult a doctor!), Then in adolescence man and in old age, when the risk of osteoporosis.

Vitamin E (tocopherol)

Vitamin E is among important antioxidants – helps to eliminate free radicals from the body together with other antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin A, zinc, copper, iron, selenium, manganese). Vitamin E is a group of several chemically similar compounds called tocopherols. The best known and most effective of these is alpha-tocopherol.

This vitamin is used in the fight against civilization diseases such as atherosclerosis and supports treatment of diseases of the heart and muscle origin. It acts preventively against colon cancer,breast and ovary. It has a positive effect not only on hematopoiesis, but also on the vascular and nervous system. Scientists are considering the possible effect of vitamin E to reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke. Further accelerates the process of detoxification of the liver and helps easily degrade pollutants. It is also used in fertility problems, menstrual cycle and during repeated abortions.

Lack of vitamin E is not very common, occurring particularly in genetic and metabolic diseases(cystic fibrosis, steatorhea, abetalipoproteinemia). The cause is malabsorption of fat or chronic liver disease.
Observable symptoms of deficiency of this vitamin are blurred vision and gait, drowsiness, dry skin, inflammation in the digestive tract, small nerve disorders and poor wound healing. In the event that the body lacks vitamin E, there is sometimes a failure of the ovaries, which can lead to infertility.Negatively affects also the red cells, because they shorten their lifetime and in extreme cases cause anemia.

Large amounts of vitamin E can be found primarily in the seeds – in the walnut kernels kličkách wheat, poppy seeds, soy, sesame, sunflower, oat flakes and vegetable oils. It is therefore recommended to consume wholemeal bread. Significant amounts are also found in liver, eggs, rabbit and pork.
The recommended daily dose is about 12.5 mg per day. Increased intake is recommended during pregnancy and old age.

Vitamin K (fytochinon)

Vitamin A plays an essential role in hemostasis because it participates in creating the factors necessary for proper blood clotting. These factors can create a timely platelets at the site of injury a blood clot and thereby prevent bleeding. Along with vitamin D is involved in the development and construction of bones.
Vitamin K is comprised of three components – K1, K2 and K3.

Lack of vitamin K in the body, in our latitudes, almost non-existent.

Vitamin K is abundantly produce bacteria in the intestine and thus cover up to half the daily requirement, the other half of the supply of this vitamin are providing food. In the case of vitamin deficiency is prolonged bleeding due to blood clotting disorders. On the human body to produce blood bruises without any cause. Vitamin K deficiency may suffer, people with liver disease and infants.

This vitamin can be found in spinach, lettuce, beans, tomatoes, potatoes, carrots, cauliflower, kale, cabbage, broccoli, hip, nettles and strawberries. It located in the liver, vegetable oils and meat.

Recommended daily dose of 0.001 mg per kilogram weight.

Other names: Avitaminosis, Hypovitaminosis

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