Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease

Description of Kawasaki disease

Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile disease occurring in which there is inflammation of the walls of small and medium-sized arteries. Very often are affected coronary arteries, which are the arteries nourishing the heart. This disease suffer mostly children under the age of 4 years, more of them are boys.

This disease further include fever and swollen lymph nodes in the neck, redness of mucous membranes in the mouth and throat, as well as redness of the skin particularly on the hands and feet and a rash on the skin (therefore lymfonodomukokutánní syndrome).

Incidence of the disease is most common in Japan and North America, where it occupies a leading position in acquired heart disease in children. But of course, not a “prerogative” of these states may occur anywhere else in the world.

The disease is treatable in most cases and can heal completely without consequences, but in some cases there is a very serious heart disease, which can be fatal ending in death.

Causes of Kawasaki disease

The disease among immunologically-mediated vascular disease. It leads to the fact that the body creates antibodies that attack its own cells. In this case, the cells of blood vessels.Vasculitides there are many.

In a large proportion of them we have already been found against what specifically is directed immunity. In the case of Kawasaki disease, it does not, unfortunately, only knows that the antibodies are directed against the endothelium (inner lining) of blood vessels. It follows but unfortunately the sad fact that can not be done test that this disease clearly revealed and confirmed.

There are several theories, which are expected to viral, bacterial or genetically conditional origin, but none of them has not been persuasive enough to be universally accepted. It is a disease of infectious origin would indicate in particular that occurs in local epidemics.

Kawasaki disease prevention

Since it is still not clarified the exact cause of the disease is difficult to talk about prevention. The most important thing is that despite the rarity of this disease has been part of the balance sheet doctor if symptoms appear below.

Signs and symptoms of Kawasaki disease

As mentioned above, the disease manifests magnification especially cervical nodes, reddening mouth or tongue, cracked lips, skin rash and reddening of the limbs, especially in the soles and palms, which usually leads to peeling of the skin (symptoms very similar scarlet fever) and two-sided conjunctivitis.

These symptoms are accompanied by fever that lasts more than 5 days.
If these symptoms and the exclusion of other causes need to think Kawasaki disease.

Treatment of Kawasaki disease

For the treatment of Kawasaki disease they are used so-called immunoglobulins, which areantibodies, which normally contains the human organism. They are delivered to the blood infusion.In this disease they have undoubtedly beneficial effect, directly primary indication for filing with this disease. First, they can modulate the immune system to alleviate aggressive in attacking the vascular wall and, secondly, have a proven effect in preventing the formation of aneurysms (aneurysms) arteries which belongs to serious complications of the disease.

Furthermore salicylates are used, which are substances from the group of NSAIDs (anti-inflammatory drugs).

Here it should be noted that these drugs (salicylates) is an indication for the use of scarce because under normal circumstances would this type of medication in pediatric patients (under 16 years), particularly to ease the symptoms of common viral illnesses should not be used. The risk is in fact a higher risk of so-called. Reye’s syndrome, a life-threatening condition that without early intervention threatened with death.

In the case of Kawasaki disease have been demonstrated but indisputable positive effects when used salycilátů in treating this disease. Additionally, the patient is in the treatment of hospitalized, so in the event that threatened the development of Ray’s syndrome, doctors are ready to intervene immediately to resolve this complication.

Parents should their children but not in normal childhood illnesses giving medicines containing acetylsalicylic acid, a drug, such as Aspirin or Aspirin.

Complications of Kawasaki disease

Disease usually occurs below the image and uncomplicated treatment is adjusted so that there is a full recovery without permanent sequelae.

In a small percentage of cases, however, complications can arise that threaten the health and life of the patient. Thus, as the wall is weakened vascular inflammation can arise aneurysms (aneurysms) wall.

The blisters then runs the risk of them formed thrombus (blood clot), which can then break off and be introduced into the blood stream of another artery, which has a smaller diameter than the size of the thrombus and then it becomes clogged. There is a so-called. Embolisation. Over the obstacle, then there is insufficient blood supply (ischemia) and subsequent tissue necrosis.

Another problem lies in aneurysms that are weakened sites of the vascular wall and may burst.That is, in the case of coronary arteries, which are in Kawasaki disease often inflamed, very serious and can cause sudden death.

Very serious complication of myocardial infarction. Coronary arteries may be clogged with thrombus that develops on the damaged inner lining of the arteries. Thrombus after increasing, to occur that clog the artery completely. This problem is greatly feared that entails, if the patient survives him, usually lasting consequences.

Other names: lymfonodomukokutánní syndrome, morbus Kawasaki, baby PAN (polyarteritis nodosa)

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