Kaposi’s sarcoma

Kaposi’s sarcoma

Description of Kaposi’s sarcoma

Kaposi’s sarcoma is a cancer caused by a virus called Kaposi’s sarcoma, which is a herpesvirus eighth belongs to the family of herpes viruses is similar, and for example, Epstein Barr virus, which causes mononucleosis. The virus infects the cells lining the lymph or blood vessels, causing them to abnormally rapid proliferation and ingrowth of the surrounding tissues. These files abnormal cells then form a purple to purple or brown tumors of the skin, which often may be comparativelyinconspicuous. At other times very active tumors, painful swelling primarily in the legs, groin andaround the eyes. Sarcoma may extend on the lungs, liver or the digestive tract, in which case it may even be life threatening.

In the digestive tract because there may be bleeding after lung can cause breathing problems.

It is important that infection with this virus does not necessarily have developed Kaposi’s sarcoma;on the contrary, the vast majority of infected has never sarcoma have not, indicates that ill only about 5 percent of those infected.

Risk factors for Kaposi’s sarcoma

Risk factor is of course especially infection Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus, without this infection sarcoma never reflected. The obvious risk is the weakening of the immune system, whether a transplant, due to congenital deficiency or, especially in patients with AIDS. Which groups of people are also at preferovány- classic sarcoma sarcoma is more common in older men, Africanconversely affects more younger.

Prevention of Kaposi’s sarcoma

Kaposi’s sarcoma is caused by Kaposi’s sarcoma herpesvirus, abbreviated known as KSHV. At present, as regards the prevention, there is no effective vaccine against this type of virus, is currently in the prevention aims to prevent the development of the clinical picture of Kaposi’s Sarcoma in already infected. Most cases of Kaposi’s sarcoma is currently infected with HIV, or they already being developed AIDS. Therefore, the prevention of disease associated with the prevention of the virus. We include here known preventive measures such as safe sex with proper protection (ie condom) with people that one knows enough time or not using used syringes and needles.

In all people it is then necessary to work on strengthening the immune system, especially for people already infected may prevent the virus to begin to damage the target cell.

Signs and symptoms of Kaposi’s sarcoma

There are several types of Kaposi’s sarcoma, whose manifestations differ. They differ in many other things, so a description individually.

Epidemic Kaposi’s sarcoma

This species occurs in the context of AIDS. Currently, the most common type. When the disease occurs in an impaired immune system, and in this state is in a patient who is also infected with herpesvirus Kaposi’s sarcoma, Kaposi’s sarcoma likely to develop, because the body is unable to fight infection sufficiently well. This type of sarcoma is referred to as “AIDS defining” a diseasemeans that if in HIV positive patient occurs, the patient has officially (AIDS patients because they can only be HIV positive, only after a certain time, they are subject to the full development of AIDS).

Classic Kaposi sarcoma (Mediterranean)

It affects mainly older men in the Mediterranean, středněvýchodního and Eastern European origin.Typically manifests as one or more lesions on the feet, ankles or soles. Lesions grow too fast and not too often appear new. The immune system is affected mostly function normally, it may sometimes be slightly weakened, often mainly age.

Endemic Kaposi’s sarcoma (African)

It occurs mainly in people žijích in equatorial Africa, so he often says African type. Herpesvirus infections of Kaposi’s sarcoma in Africa is far more prevalent than in other regions of the world, which increases the risk of developing the disease. The disease affects younger people than the previous model, the infection is no longer in children, the disease is manifested mostly in the age of forty years. Often the classic symptoms accompanied attack and lymph nodes and other organs, and can lead to relatively quick death.

Iatrogenic Kaposi’s sarcoma

Iatrogenic means effected by the physician, which is the type most often occur in connection withtransplantation, where the patient’s immune system is intentionally weakened so that the transplant well received. This weakening of the immune system in an infected individual higher chances outbreak.

Often after a dose reduction of the immunosuppressant lesions shrink or even disappear.

Diagnosis of Kaposi’s sarcoma

The doctor removes the first medical history and perform basic physical examination. The history asks the patient’s sex life, both because of possible HIV infection, and because the virus is spreading more among homosexual men. The doctor examines the lesion naked eye, it is often necessary examination rectum as sarcoma may occur on the inner side of this area. For this reason, sometimes the doctor may also look for blood in stool.

For proper diagnosis of the doctor removed using local anesthesia piece lesions, the diseased tissue, a biopsy is performed. Using a microscope in a laboratory then evaluates the design and organization of cells, which may confirm or refute sarcoma.

In the earlier stages of the disease may not yet be sufficiently characteristic changes and the patient must undergo a biopsy for some time again.

The doctor may also proceed to the examination of the lungs, which makes their radiograph, by which then proceed further. Doctor into the lungs may also be available via bronchoscopy for sleep of the patient. Do bronchi (bronchitis) takes a thin pipe and enlightened views the terrain lungs, sometimes from there using a bronchoscope may have to take a biopsy.

Similar investigations can be done even in the digestive tract, where the so-called upper endoscopy can view the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, or colon colonoscopy inspected.

Treatment of Kaposi’s sarcoma

Treatment of Kaposi’s sarcoma is currently much more efficient than it was several decades ago, as research continues and now better-known causes of this disease. There are several treatment options with the physician and is, to consider to be most beneficial for a particular patient. It is necessary to take into account the particular condition of the patient’s immune system, appearance, size and extent of lesions and other other concomitant diseases.

The most important treatment for ensuring a better functioning of the immune system, this means that patients with AIDS must be co-administered HIV drugs, so-called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HIV is a retrovirus). Often such patients the only treatment. In immunosuppressed helps reduce doses or complete discontinuation of medication. To prevent the creation of new and new lesions, it is suitable to medicines that antiviral drugs such as ganciclovir;but they do not promote healing of existing lesions, “only” hinders the creation of new ones. As the patient’s condition worsens with overlying bacterial infection, it is necessary to be careful and patient enough against it, even pharmacologically protect.

Local, local therapy can not be used in any case, it is only effective for certain types of lesions.This therapy is mainly used to improve the appearance of the patient and is mostly used mainly on very well visible damage, for example in the facial area. This therapy however not prevent the penetration of new defects .K local therapy is mainly used retinoids, derivatives of vitamin A,which is applied directly to lesions several times a day. Furthermore, cryotherapy may be used when defects frozen with liquid nitrogen to a relatively high success rate.

Another option of local treatment is the injection of very small quantities of a drug directly into the lesion, which is a very low power consumption, and generally into the body for the substance reaches a minimum.

Patients also can be irradiated. Radiation having a very high energy is used to kill the tumor cells used locally to defects mainly in the face and reduce pain and swelling. Radiation is also used for the lesion in the oral cavity or throat. Irradiation of course, has a number of adverse side effects such as nausea, vomiting, changes in skin, fatigue may cause anemia (anemia) and a decrease in white blood cells, which endangers the patient in the event infection. In the mouth, after irradiation may cause pain and painful ulcer formation.

Small and infrequent defects can be surgically removed, cut.

It is widely used for the treatment of sarcoma, chemotherapy is administered systemically, thus getting into the circulation, and is suitable especially for advanced stages sarcoma. Usually the treatment is successful, however, all symptoms usually disappear completely, but it is possible to stop treatment and return to it only if symptoms worsen or begin again leads to the discovery of additional and new defects. Chemotherapy kills both tumor and unfortunately healthy cells, so the treatment should be considered carefully and try to minimize side effects. These are similar to the radiation, in terms of nausea, vomiting, hair loss, changes in blood, and painful mouth sores.Due to the decrease in blood cell counts may develop anemia, susceptibility to infection and prolonged bleeding during minor injuries (due to lack of platelets). Some chemotherapy can damage nerves and cause numbness of the body, mainly the fingers and toes. Often the side effects disappear after a few days of treatment, but some remain for a long time.

Biological therapy is the administration of chemicals normally produced by the body to help the body fight the cancer cells. These materials are for example interferons, which are administered by injection into muscle or subcutaneous tissue. For about half the patients, this treatment is highly effective, especially those with no other infections, and with good immune systems. The treatment is long, often lasts at least six months. Side effects are milder, mostly in the form of flu symptoms, but sometimes may even cause liver damage.

Complications of Kaposi’s sarcoma

Due to the severity of the cancer disease is a complication of a large number, and can be quite serious. Because of damage to the lining of blood vessels they are of course vulnerable to ruptureor other damage that can lead to dangerous internal bleeding. This may be in a range of internal organs and of the digestive tract, where it often observed as the blood in the stool. Very frequent complication is also anemia, anemia, a deficiency of red blood cells. When lung damage leads tobreathing problems, feelings of breathlessness, the patient may cough. When these symptoms is necessary in order as soon as possible to do CT, particularly because patients with this complication of AIDS may be even fatal.

All of these complications can naturally without treatment, lead to death, therefore it must be well treated and prevented them effectively so.

Other names: tumor from the lining of blood vessels

Keywords: Kaposi's sarcoma

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