Description of gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is a highly infectious disease caused by bacterial infection. They are among the most common sexually transmitted diseases.

The last decade has reduced its presence worldwide. In the Czech Republic in 2006, the number of newly reported infections in 1082, ie. 10.5 infections per 1OO thousand. resident.

Infection is more frequently found in men than in women and mainly affects the age group between 15-35 years, therefore, especially among young women it is a dangerous disease that can have a negative effect on fertility (see complications).


The cause of gonorrhea

The disease is gonorrhea bacterium named Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus. It is a Gram-negative bacterium, which is very little resistant to the external environment (danger of very slight risk of infection should be exercised when using public toilets, use immediately infected towels, washcloths or kissing). Its transmission is going onalmost exclusively by intimate contact (sexual intercourse).

Gonorrhea is primarily local disease has little tendency to spread of whole body (generalized). It has mostly character progress rapidly (acute) inflammation with purulent discharge.

It affects the lining (mucosa) of the genitourinary (urogenital) system. For most men, the urethra (the ureter), from where it can spread to the prostate, seminal vesicles, epididymis. For females, the urethra often cervix, where it can pass into the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes.

For both sexes may also affect the mucous membranes of the rectum as a result of the operation of anal sex, with women also clogging infection, vaginal discharge.

For oral sex with an infected person is a high risk of infection of the nasopharynx.

Infected mothers during childbirth can also infect a newborn. The infection manifests as a newbornocular inflammation of the conjunctiva, or cornea (keratoconjunctivitis).


Risk factors for gonorrhea

Above all, promiscuity, unprotected sexual intercourse with an unknown random person, prostitution, poverty.

Risk groups are mainly young adults, drug users.


prevention of gonorrhea

The most effective prevention is abstinence. Once it obvious reasons can not be complied with, the basic prevention of responsible sexual behavior. This involves limiting the number of sexual partners and avoiding sex adventure with random people.

Certainly anyone who does not have a steady partner, you should use condom during intercourse.His regular and proper use reduces the risk of infection.

During the onset of symptoms should seek medical help with investigations and eventual initiation of treatment to prevent complications. For diagnosis and treatment to avoid sexual intercourse in terms of preventing further spread of the disease.

For prevention of infection in newborns is applied across the board so. Kredeizace when every newborn preemptively applied to the eye in the conjunctival sac disinfectant Ophtalmo-Septonex.


Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea

Gonorrhea in men

Effect after contact with infection in 25% of men usually 2-6 days after infection.

Among the first symptoms include cutting and burning during urination (dysuria), frequent urination during the day (pollakiuria). Examine redness around the mouth of the urethra, and also běložlutavý discharge (typical is the need to replace the underwear).

If untreated or ineffectively treated gonorrhea can cause infection spread up the urinary tract inflammation, seminal vesicles, epididymis, prostate. Prostatitis is manifested by elevated temperatures, painful night ejaculation (pollutions), abdominal pain during urination and expelling feces. When disability epididymis is observed red, painful swelling of the scrotum. Approximately 10% of cases the infection symptoms are not present (asymptomatic).

Gonorrhea in women

Occurs in about half of unprotected intercourse with an infected partner. The most frequently used as cervicitis together with inflammation of the urethra.

Manifested by burning during urination (dysuria) with discharge. The cervix is red and coated with pus. Bleeding may occur between menstrual periods and bleeding after sexual intercourse.Infection sometimes also affect glands on the lips and small glands at the urethral meatus. This can lead to the formation of purulent sac (abscess) with significant pain when walking and sitting.

About 50% of women infected with gonorrhea have no symptoms or mild or atypical terms. It then poses a risk of the further spread of the disease.

In the case of untreated infection, the disease spread further and there is inflammation of the uterine lining (endometritis), small pelvis, inflammation of the fallopian tubes (salpingitis), which is often accompanied by abdominal pain, fever, feeling sick (nausea) and vomiting with prolonged disease as a symptom describes except for vague abdominal pain too painful intercourse(dyspareunia).

Other forms of gonorrhea in both sexes

Rectal gonorrhea – aches anus excretion stool (bowel movement), discharge from the anus.

Pharyngeal gonorrhea – pharyngeal, most with no effect, if so, a mild sore throat.

Conjunctivitis – Conjunctivitis, revealed as reddened inflamed eye, can lead to blindness.

disseminated gonorrhea

It occurs only in about 0.5- 3% of patients. It represents the spread of infection to other organs of the body outside of the system through which the infection has penetrated into the organism.

Most often the skin is affected, one or more joints (mono, polyarthritis) and is present elevated temperature. The affected are the knee, ankle, finger, wrist. Joints are reddened, swollen, painful.On the skin over the knuckles and fingers to form a red-soaked rash crusts.


examination of gonorrhea

Investigations relies mainly on cultivation, ie. Present bacteria grow on special soils. Bacteria obtained swabs.

The most commonly performed in men swab of the mouth of the urethra, preferably in the morning before urinating, or a few hours after urination (or. After prostate massage) to prevent flow of urine to flush bacteria and false negative results.

In women, the swab obtained from the cervix and urethra. It is better to carry out sampling 2-3 days after menstruation. For extragenital gonorrhea consumption makes the rectum, throat. Cultivation will provide results within 48 hours.

A reliable method is the direct microscopic evidence. On a slide under a microscope to observe specimen purulent discharge from the urethra.

Other methods for the detection of bacteria PCR, direct immunofluorescence, ELISA.

For gonorrhea has extended whole-body (disseminated gonorrhea) is a blood culture examination – blood were present with the bacteria is left for several days on a special land where, if bacteria are present will be their multiplication and opportunities permit.

In addition to the examination of gonorrhea also includes the producers and other sexually transmitted infections. Routinely perform tests for syphilis and HIV virus.


treatment of gonorrhea

Gonorrhea is subject to reporting and its treatment is mandatory. Since its originator is a bacterium that is a treatment with antibiotics. They are selected antibiotics sensitive to the bacterium. They serve mostly seven days.

With early treatment, the chance of complete recovery are very good. Deployment of treatment does not mean also the end of therapy. The next day after treatment and twice during the two week carried bacteriological checks. Up at the negatives too serology, the lab is ill only after 4 months removed from the register.


How can I help myself

Since gonorrhea infection must be cured so that the freed organism causing bacteria. The drug of choice is therefore antibiotics and their acquisition should seek medical attention.

Emphasis on how you can help yourself in this case is rather on the side of prevention. The behavior in order to prevent infection. Needless to remember that disease gonorrhea leaves no immunity in the body. This means that a person can become infected repeatedly, even though she once endured.


complications of gonorrhea

Complications represent states that develop when untreated or failure to comply with the correct principles of treatment. I.e. For example, non-compliance with the required length of antibiotic use.

Complications include infection spreading to other organs of the urinary tract (the prostate, epididymides men uterus, fallopian tubes in women) or also to those outside the urogenital equipment (eg. In disseminated gonorrhea).

The consequences then are not only thus longer and heavier course of treatment, but as a result of inflammation occur in organs in healing ligament adhesions and scar may occur, for example, the contraction and limitation to obstruction genital organs with potential risk of loss of fertility in both men and women.

In women describe the complications besides infertility frequent miscarriages, premature birthsand ectopic pregnancies.

Finally, the complications include increased susceptibility to acquisition and other serious sexually transmitted infections, especially HIV-virus and syphilis.

For neonatal gonorrhea and individuals who have gonorrhea themselves eg. Hands transferred to the eye, with the emergence kapavkového inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva, is a dangerous complication rupturing cornea leading to blindness.

Other names: gonorrhea, clap band, gonorrhea

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