Description of glaucoma

Glaucoma is a term that is used for a specific eye problem that has many causes and is equally colorful and variety of its manifestations. The name comes from the Greek word Glaucus, which means “the color of the sea.” Hence the Czech translation of glaucoma.

Glaucoma is no turbidity. Designation turbidity has its origin in the history when the terminal stages of the disease occurred corneal opacity, which is a transparent structure on the surface of the eye.Glaucoma is due to elevated intraocular pressure.

As it may happen that the intraocular pressure increase and why its increase so dangerous? Inside the eye creates a fluid which flows through the eye and maintains normal internal pressure of the eye so that the eye collapsing (vernacular nesplaskne), while its proper function. In the event that the fluid forms a surplus or a plurality of normal, but blocks its outflow from the eye out, there is an increase in intraocular pressure.

It is dangerous primarily because the eye is located in a relatively small and mainly rigid packaging, which does not give him a chance to increase the pressure at somewhere arch or swell. So hence pathologically increased pressure pushes the inside. This leads to damage to the optic nerve that is very sensitive structure.

Normally ongoing circulation of eye fluid as follows: It consists in so-called ciliary body. From there, the fluid getting into the space between the rear wall and the front wall of the iris of the lens – this space is called the posterior chamber of the eye.

From there the fluid flows through the pupil, which is a hole in the iris and behind it there is placeda lens into the anterior chamber, which is bounded by front cornea.

The total outflow of aqueous humor occurs in the chamber angle. It is the angle between them which encloses the cornea and iris. At this point the tissue, called the scaffold (trabeculae trabecular) and passing the liquid absorbed into the system of channels which a fluid safely divertinto the vascular bed of the eye.

Under normal circumstances, this angle is open and natural amount of fluid produced by the ciliary body flows through here. Problem arises begins if the liquid form or excess occurs that this “drainage” angle closes.
In this case, the fluid in the eyeball accumulates and starts to oppress the optic nerve.

It is discussed herein, therefore, make it easier to understand the most basic division of glaucoma, which comprises two types namely open-angle glaucoma and angle closure glaucoma.

Open-angle glaucoma constitute the vast majority of glaucoma, and as the name implies, the chamber angle between the cornea and iris when it opened, so that the fluid has a free drainage path. The problem is that it produces excess intraocular fluid.

Very long runs without symptoms (asymptomatic) and is often the first symptom to vision impairment. Unfortunately, the patient first symptom is a sign of advanced disease stage.

Closed-angle glaucoma is formed so that the front portion of the iris nalehne the cornea and thus will be closed chamber angle. Fluid can not flow and accumulates in the eye, thus sharply increasing intraocular pressure. Manifests seizure rozmlžením vision and severe pain. You should not underestimate the pain in the eye, and a visit to an eye doctor in any case is not delayed.

Just imagine, normal intraocular pressure ranges roughly between 12 to 20 mmHg. For the threshold value is considered to be 21 Torr or higher. This is a general proposition, because every organism reacts individually and what one suffers without problems, may be pathological for a second.

Glaucoma is a disease that can be inherited, largely the reason for its creation hereditary genetic load. It is therefore recommended, if someone in the family suffers from glaucoma, especially the child’s mother, the baby should be timely examined children’s ophthalmologist.


Risk factors for glaucoma

Among the factors that none of us will not affect an aging namely age over 40 years, genetic predisposition and race, because glaucoma is generally found in larger extent in blacks.

Those which can to a certain extent influence the intraocular pressure, stress, emotional swings,diabetes (diabetes mellitus), or may contribute migraine.


Prevention of Glaucoma

As with all disease prevention must steer clear risk factors. If you have diabetes, too much stuck with it, but with due adherence to treatment and dietary regimen come its negative effects on the whole organism until much later.

Stress can also be avoided if one will pay attention to mental hygiene and capable even in demanding jobs and lifestyles to find a moment to relax, to rid the body of harmful substances, which it accumulated stress.

Smoking is obvious – reduce, stop completely and most of them never starting.


Signs and symptoms of glaucoma

Glaucoma is a disease very tricky, especially that its symptoms are creeping and do not know about yourself. Can reveal only a medical examination, so it is recommended for people over 40 years ofregular checks ophthalmologist.

Symptoms vary depending on the type of glaucoma. Worse are in angle-closure glaucoma, the very manifestation of the intense pain, eye reddening and suddenly deteriorates vision. If up to glaukomovému inflammation and it is typical sensation of color around the wheel of light sources, severe headache and the eye, they are often accompanied by nausea and vomiting.

Glaucoma attack is a condition that requires immediate medical attention!

Symptoms in open-angle glaucoma are milder, exerting a slight headache and behind the eye, which can sometimes be a chronic and slightly blurred vision.


Treatment of Glaucoma

Glaucoma therapy is threefold. Pharmaceutical (medical), laser or surgery.

In therapy using drugs we use products that allow for better drainage of intraocular fluid or medicines that reduce the production of this fluid. Specifically, these include drugs, called themiotics that narrows the pupil and thereby help increase the chamber angle and thus promote the circulation of intraocular fluid. Other drugs are beta – blockers, which decrease the production of intraocular fluid.

Laser therapy is twofold direction, depending on the type of glaucoma. In angle-closure glaucoma surgery is used, which is called laser iridotomy. Iris Iris and Tomie sign against. In practice, it seems that using a laser to iris “burn” a small hole, which to the naked eye is not very visible, so do not worry that you somehow marred eye. Through this hole, improves the flow of intraocular fluid.

In open angle glaucoma, the laser treatment focuses on meshwork and this kind of treatment is called laser trabeculoplasty. It works by improving throughput meshwork of the chamber angle and again should lead to improved circulation of the fluid.

Laser therapy but mostly used as supportive, complementary therapy to treat drug – droplets.

Surgical treatment is selected if the previous two treatment did not lead to satisfactory results.The aim is to remove the pathological tissue, which prevents the correct outflow of intraocular fluid and is an effort to reduce the amount of generated fluids.


How do I help myself

Here, unfortunately, without medical assistance there is no way to get rid of glaucoma. The doctor probably will prescribe several kinds of droplets that drip when you correctly, the instructions will help you to make the state a halt in the development of glaucoma, in which you have been diagnosed and the condition does not worsen.

Glaucoma is half inherited disease, so it is good if you know that your family has occurred, to bemonitored regularly by a doctor. Nothing can definitely hurt to check and give you a just peace.


Complications of glaucoma

Changes to the optic nerve, which occurs in glaucoma, are irreversible. Therefore, postponing doctor visits can lead to irreversible damage to eyesight, whose rate is individual depending on the condition of glaucoma. The most feared complication is the complete and irreversible loss of vision.

Other names: glaucoma, glaucoma, open angle glaucoma, angle-closure glaucoma

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