Description gastritis

Gastritis is a disease of the stomach. This term is used to describe a group of conditions characterized by inflammation or irritation of the lining (mucosa) of stomach.

Gastritis may occur suddenly (acute gastritis), or may develop slowly, over a longer period of time (chronic gastritis). The term acute means that symptoms develop rapidly and of short duration (1-2 days), but not necessarily hard and severe. Chronic develops slowly and may have few symptoms (symptoms) or no (asymptomatic gastritis).


Causes of gastritis

It can be caused by many factors, including bacterial or viral infection, stress, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, long-term use of certain medications, conditions after surgery, trauma, or associated with autoimmune diseases, the return (reflux) of bile into the stomach.

Excessive consumption of alcohol, coffee, smoking leads to irritation of the stomach lining.Increased susceptibility to the effects of digestive gastric juices.

Difficult to digest food, especially animal fats, inappropriate and unusual treatment, food temperature, seasoning, can cause acute gastritis. Difficulties that may arise in this way are known as Chinese Restaurant Syndrome.

Stress is another factor operative in the background gastritis. Stress gastritis acute gastritis induced by stress after surgery, injury, burns, or associated with severe infections.

Approximately 90% of gastritis (mainly chronic) infection is caused by Helicobacter pylori. It is a bacterium that is adapted to live in the acidic conditions of the stomach. It is reported that about half of the world’s human population is infected with this bacteria, most in developing countries.

For the majority of persons infected with H. pylori is not reflected but no symptoms. The reason why this happens is not fully understood. Assumed role of heredity in terms of increased susceptibility to the infection and also lifestyle – alcohol, smoking, high load stress.

Gastritis secondary to Helicobacter pylori infection is called gastritis type B (B = Bacterial). It is related to the formation of stomach and duodenal ulcer.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pain medication such as aspirin, ibuprofen, may cause long-term use as acute and chronic gastritis. They have an irritant effect on the stomach.

This disease of the stomach can cause a return of bile juices and other components of the intestinal secretion in the stomach. Bile is a fluid that helps digest fats. It is made by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. From the gallbladder into the small intestine gets.

Normally, the annular tightener at the transition between stomach and small intestine prevents penetration of bile into the stomach, but when the sphincter is not functioning properly, or had been surgically removed for various reasons gets bile into the stomach and may cause irritation and inflammation of the stomach lining, leading to chronic gastritis . Gastritis caused by chemicals, e.g. bile reflux or drugs called Chemical gastritis, gastritis C.

Approximately 3-6% of cases of chronic gastritis develops from autoimunity- Autoimmune gastritis, gastritis A. The human body produces antibodies against his own stomach, especially against the so-called. Parietal cells. It affects the body of stomach and causes a reduction, normally developed mucosa thinning (atrophy), with disappearance of the parietal cells.

These cells form the HCl (hydrochloric acid), the basis gastric acid secretion and these cells produceintrinsic factor (intrinsic factor). It is an indispensable ingredient for absorption of vitamin B12 in the small intestine. Lack of vitamin B 12 is formed anemia (pernicious anemia). Vitamin B12 is indeed one of the substances necessary for the proper formation of red blood cells (erythrocytes).

Finally, there is gastritis formed as part of other disorders, including e.g. HIV / AIDS, Crohn’s disease, parasitic infections, diseases of liver and kidneys.


Risk factors for gastritis

Risk factors include, besides the above-mentioned (H. pylori infection, autoimmune disorders, alcohol, smoking, stress, difficult to digest spicy foods, certain medications, etc.) and age. Older people are generally more vulnerable to inflammation of the stomach. Stomach lining with increasing age has a tendency to thinning and also increases the likelihood of infection by Helicobacter pylori, or the development of autoimmune processes.

We must also take into account the individual resistance of the individual who is affected by gastrointestinal illnesses, psychological influences (emotions, mood, Education) and the overall state of the organism (the period of recovery from the disease-convalescence, fatigue, other diseases).


Signs and symptoms of gastritis

These include pressure or pain in the upper abdomen (epigastrium), loss of appetite until aversion to food, belching, nausea and nausea (nausea), vomiting, bloating, wind (flatulence), abdominal colic, diarrhea, dark stools, weight loss. When difficulties persist for a week or longer, you should see your doctor.

In acute gastritis problems usually lasts a short time, several hours to days with rapid return to the status quo or slow lingering symptoms. Rather causes nausea, burning pain and discomfort in the upper abdomen. Sometimes they may be present and headache. Fever (body temperature above 38 ° C) is not. Maximum may occur ephemeral elevated temperature between 37 ° C and 38 ° C.

Chronic gastritis develops gradually and causes a rather dull pain, a feeling of fullness or loss of appetite.

Occasionally bleeding may occur in the stomach. But it is rarely severe bleeding, which then may occur vomiting blood, or leaving a black tarry stool. In this case, it is necessary to seek medical advice immediately.


investigations gastritis

Definitive diagnosis is purely histological gastritis. This means that the piece of tissue from the stomach must see the pathologist under a microscope. This piece of tissue (biopsy sample) obtained during endoscopy doctor.

In this test, a patient lying on her side, is introduced through the mouth through the esophagus to the first part of the small intestine flexible, tubular, illuminated optical device (endoscope). Before the introduction of the endoscope is usually numb the throat of the patient. The doctor has an endoscope through the opportunity to see the condition of the lining of the digestive organs of the patient. In the event that there he sees something suspicious, you can use special instruments introduced through the endoscope to remove a sample of tissue and send it to the lab.

Tissue sampling is not painful because the lining of the stomach nerves are leading pain.Examination takes about 20-30 minutes, but the patient should not leave the medical device before it wears off effect of drugs. Risk evaluations are rare. The vast majority of patients who, after exercising complain of any problems, experiencing only mild transient pain in the throat from swallowing the endoscope, which can cause irritation of the place during its insertion. A rare complication is bleeding or perforation of the stomach wall.

X-ray žaludku- noting signs of inflammation or other changes to the stomach. Testing is usually performed with a contrast agent that is swallowed.

On the exclusion of H. pylori infection, there are other methods of investigation.

RUT – demonstrates an enzyme (urease) which produces H.pylori using a special color indicator strips. Is carried out directly from the sample of tissue of the stomach.

Cultivation – requires special conditions of collection and transport of the tissue sample of the stomach to the laboratory, where bacteria (if present in the sample) grown.

Breath test – carried out with an empty stomach. After drinking labeled substances are monitored exhaled remnants of the dose that was cut Helicobacter present. The test requires the cooperation of the patient.

Determination of H. pylori in faeces – using immunological methods, looks for the presence of H. pylori in faeces. The test is suitable for examinations of children.

Blood – in a blood sample to look for antibodies against H. pylori.


treatment of gastritis

Cure for gastritis depends on the removal (recovery) own specific causes. Regarding e.g. of gastritis induced by drugs or alcohol, it is recommended to limit the supply of these substances.

A suitable procedure for sudden problems that we can heal ourselves without the help of drugs includes bed rest and diet, the severity of the condition.

The first 1-2 days should drink only liquids (good lukewarm unsweetened black tea), diet biscuit. On the second day we eat bread older. Next day add cereal soup (Krupková, rice, oat flakes). The transition to a normal diet should be done gradually, in about a week.

In the treatment of more serious conditions, it applies to the use of certain medications. There are the painkillers, called. Spazmoanalgetika or anti-vomiting medications and drugs that reduce stomach acid in order to alleviate the symptoms and difficulties and to help accelerate the healing process.

Served with antacids (eg. Sodný- Bicarbonate soda bicarbonate). They antacids. Rather, they are used in milder inflammation of the stomach. Causes rapid pain relief. H2 receptor antagonists(antihistamines – ranitidine) or proton pump inhibitors (eg. Omeprazole, Helicid) dampen or inhibit the production of stomach acid, unlike antacids first skupiny- that acid present at each bind and thereby prevent its irritating effect on inflammation of the stomach wall changed.

Successful may be traditionally served charcoal.

Special case gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori. Removing bacteria can significantly improve the return to the original state of the stomach lining. When H. pylori accidentally finds a patient without difficulty, it is customary to begin treatment.

This, however, always starts when there is no present or duodenal ulcer. The most commonly used so-called. Trebles. It consists of a combination of two antibiotics (eg. Amoxicillin, metronidazole) and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole).

Sometimes adding more products bismuth (De-Nol).

Treatment of autoimmune gastritis is known. As for the impaired absorption of vitamin B12 from the stomach (possibility of pernicious anemia), vitamin into the body supplied in another form (by injection).


complications of gastritis

Untreated gastritis, especially those caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, can lead to the formation of gastric and duodenal ulcers.

Another danger it represents a risk of stomach bleeding.

Some of gastritis increases the risk of stomach cancer. They are mostly gastritis, which take a long time (chronic, e.g. autoimmune, Helicobacter), and lead to a thinning of the lining of the stomach, with a gradual disappearance of typical gastric cells and cells substitute for typical gut lining (called intestinal metaplasia). The emergence of this reconstruction is a precursor in the development of gastric cancer.


Preventing gastritis

Although it is difficult to prevent infection with Helicobacter pylori, there are some tips that can reduce the risk of gastritis or relieve its symptoms. These include in particular observance of proper diet.

Avoiding foods that seem to us an irritant, such as. A lot of spicy, greasy, fried, or acidic foods. We should eat slowly, relax at meals and eat smaller portions, regular times during the day to prevent excessive gastric acid on the stomach during fasting.

Maintain your weight, exercise regularly, and especially to limit stress.

Abuse of alcohol and smoking. Smoking is not only promotes the formation of gastric acid, also damages the protective layer of the stomach lining, which in healthy stomach it protects against the effects of acidic juice. Finally, smoking is a risk factor for stomach cancer.

If possible, try to replace the use of OTC medicines such as aspirin, ibuprofen others. Maybe substances with paracetamol (Paralen, Panadol).


How can I help myself

Once you suffer from gastritis and do not feel that the treatment is working as it should, or not even started, here are some tips that could benefit. These include e.g. practicing breathing and other lightexercises e.g. walking, swimming.

People describe relief after drinking the juice from grated raw potatoes (fasting).

You can also try coconut milk, rice porridge, marigold tea, milk.

Other names: gastritis, acute gastritis, chronic gastritis, gastritis, bacterial gastritis, chemical gastritis, autoimmune gastritis

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