Description concussion

Concussion (concussion, lat. Commotio cerebri) is a disorder of brain function, which is caused by injury – concussion. This was one of lighter brain injury.

Characteristics of concussion involves short-term loss of consciousness (coma), memory regurgitation, which is not a requirement.

For a concussion is always unconsciousness over a time period of seconds to 30 minutes and according to this length can be divided into three groups (see below). Amnesiac unresponsive to verbal stimuli (does not answer questions), nor to a painful stimulus (painful stimulus – for example, pinch earlobe, strong catch below the lower jaw and the strong catch for the trapezius muscles at the neck).

Concussion in connection with unconsciousness is characterized in that the patient consciousness discusses itself and does not remember at the moment of injury, and for a short time before. This phenomenon is known asretrograde amnesia.

The patient is disoriented and sleepy, he is nauseated or vomits repeatedly, it may be damp.

It is important after such an injury keep him awake and call for help, since the head injury may be more severe and may occur bleeding in the brain (intracranial hemorrhage) or a fracture of the skull. When a head injury with tissue damage (bleeding head wound) and symptoms of concussion, it is necessary to investigate the patient’s physician.

It must not be forgotten in injuries to the head can damage the spine – especially neck, which can lead to spinal cord injuries and total paralysis.


Risk factors concussion

Most often arises after a concussion falls, sports, traffic accidents. It is often the children who play somewhere and fall on your head. If there is a loss of consciousness and nausea, it is necessary as soon as the injured to a doctor.


Prevention of concussion

Head protection in sports, personal protective equipment at work, babysitting, protection of high-rise buildings – railing.


Signs and symptoms of concussion

A blow to the head or jolt the body with an unnaturally sharp movement of the head (eg. In a car accident), followed by short-term or long-term impairment of consciousness, following furthernausea and somnolence. Whereas, the sooner after injury followed by unconsciousness and nausea, the worse the prognosis concussion.

X-ray (RTG) and computed tomography (CT) scans are important for the exclusion of bleeding or fractures (fractures) of the skull.

The actual symptoms leading to the diagnosis of concussion stemming from its very definition. It manifests itself after a head injury short unconscious within 30 minutes divided into three stages –the first Wed from seconds to 5 minutes; 2nd Wed 15 minutes, the third Wed 30 minutes.

After a head injury in a coma longer than 30 minutes is no longer a concussion, but heavier form of brain contusion, or bruising of the brain.

The very short-term coma is usually related to retrograde amnesia – the patient can not remember the accident itself, and shortly following the event. The patient is sleepy (especially in children) – is needed to keep the patient awake – to talk to him and find him not to leave.

Other typical symptoms of headache, disorientation, nausea, dizziness, vomiting may occur.Other associations sweating, increased heart rate (tachycardia).


Treatment of concussion

Concussion is one of the most common diseases caused by the accident. Most often we see it in children and in sports. Concussion should be treated from the first moment, and call – first aid – ambulance or doctor.

Disabled person check whether it is still conscious, do not select him go back to sleep and unnecessary patient do not move unless it is necessary, and especially if you complain of backache.

Do not give the patient anything to eat or drink, because without X-ray (RTG) or computed tomography (CT) can not clearly say whether or not brain damaged skull and will need surgery under anesthesia. If there were a large swelling of the brain or heavy bleeding was present, it would be necessary anesthesia for the patient and the anesthesiologist (doctor who manages anesthesia – sleep – and controls vital functions during surgery), it is beneficial.

If the patient vomits, keep it in a position to prevent aspiration (aspiration) of gastric contents.Until the arrival of the doctor, still checking in!

If you suddenly fails, heart or breathing, without hesitation begin cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

After the arrival of the emergency services followed by a rapid sequence of events. It is importantto fix the cervical spine – fitting suitable neck brace (cervical collar to be deployed at each of head injuries and spine – especially at the falls and car accidents). Cervical collar is to prevent further injury during transport of the patient. If it is a serious traffic accident or a fall from a greater height to krčnímu collar used as fixing vacuum mattress on the whole body. Thus securing the patient is already prepared to be transported. It must constantly monitor vital signs and should keep the injured conscious ..

When handing over the hospital should follow the X-rays not only the brain, but also neck and then other parts of the body according to the mechanism of injury. According to X-ray to see if it is not present other injuries – then the treatment according to them.

As regards the actual concussion, the patient should be at least three days hospitalized for elimination of serious bleeding in the brain or other further complications. During this period should not bother your eyes – not recommended to watch TV or read. He should observe bedrest and walk accompanied by personnel and the patient may still feel dizzy.

As already mentioned, concussion can not be any imaging method to prove fully, so that the physician based on the sensations and symptoms of the patient. In this direction then gives his therapy alone – it is symptomatic – symptomatic treatment, the patient manifests. Usually administered painkillers (medicines to relieve pain), headache. The patient during hospitalization connected to devices that monitor his vitals.

After his release from hospital, the patient should still observe at least three weeks Sleep mode – to be at home, not to switch to Non-Sports etc. If it is associated with a concussion other injuries – spinal injuries – the recovery time and hospital stay given by injuries.

Repeated concussions can lead to irreversible changes – memory loss, restlessness, mikrokrvácení center of the brain, leading to permanent changes. Each concussion may be complicated in the course of healing within a few weeks to months postkomočním syndrome.


How can I help myself

Apart from the aforementioned prevention is necessary to say, what to do in case of a suspected concussion. Ensuring the fastest possible transport the injured to the hospital to guard vital functions, while unconscious is secure.


Complications concussion

The main complications of concussion are associated diseases resulting in the actual infliction of concussion as they are – brain hemorrhage, a disorder of brain activity, fractures of the skull or spine (especially cervical) or spinal cord injuries resulting in paralysis.

Another complication can be bleeding into the brain (intracranial hemorrhage), which can have serious consequences in brain damage. As the first signs of change can be shaped pupils, increasing headache, incipient paralysis of the limbs (extremities), they repeated a coma with a deepening confusion.

The actual complication is postconcussional concussion syndrome, afflicting up to half of patients. Identifies various symptoms associated with a concussion, but can appear immediately after a few days or weeks. Samy then subside, not to exceed one year. It includes the following symptoms: headache (migraine – may be in connection with damage to the cervical spine), feeling of tiredness, restlessness, dizziness, sleep disturbances, dizziness, decreased performance (both mental and physical stress).

Other names: concussions, commotio cerebri

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