Colon cancer

Colon cancer

Description of colon cancer

The colon is part of our digestive tract, where it stores the excess material. Together with the rectum (rectal), which is a terminal of the colon, consists of muscular structure in the shape of a long tube.

Tumors of the colon and rectum are formed on the inner side wall of the intestine and the polyp is called when benign and cancerwhen they are malignant. Benign polyp is not so serious, because it is only a small growths that can invade other tissues or organs, and do not spread to the rest of the body. They are easily identifiable during a process called a colonoscopy, during which also easily removed and do not endanger human life.

When deleting a timely manner, can be turned malignant tumors, which grow very rapidly, they can get through the wall of the colon and spread of metastases in the body. This way invade and damage nearby tissues and organs, but can get to distant parts of the body and form tumors, such as lung or liver. When cancer gets to this stage, the treatment is very complicated and full recovery of the patient is unlikely.


Risk factors for colorectal cancer

Using statistics, it is clear that colon cancer is a serious problem. It is the third most common type of cancer in men and the fourth most common type of cancer in women. The biggest risk, however, that every man may very well affect the poor eating habits.

Research has shown that this type of cancer is more common in Western countries and those countries which have taken root dietary habits from Western countries. A much lower incidence of colon cancer was discovered in countries in Asia and Africa than in other parts of the world.

One of the major factors that increase the risk of colon cancer, the excessive intake of dietary fats. Fat intake in the population is statistically much higher in countries where colon cancer significantly more frequent, thus we can say that people with excessive intake of fat have a greater predisposition for this kind of cancer than people with lower fat intake.

Fat in the diets of most exported vegetables and food rich in fiber. Not only the intake of fat, but also to obesity, often accompanied by diabetes, are factors that risk of colon cancer increases.

Also smoking increases the risk of this type of cancer, as well as others. Cigarette smoke or chew tobacco carcinogens transmitted into the body, so even in the colon, and research has shown that smoking increases polyps.

Another factor is of course the very presence of polyps on the inner walls of the colon. Generally it argues that malignant cancer arises from these polyps, and therefore it is very important to remove as soon as possible. Polyp is the result of a defective chromosome, which is inherited from one parent, and therefore man is an increased risk that there polyp appears when the history of his family had any polyps or colon cancer directly emerged.

About 20% of patients with colon cancer comes from a family where the cancer has emerged. If you have colon cancer in relatives of first instance, or closest relatives, the risk of cancer in the offspring of 18%.

If a patient suffering from ulcerative colitis for him the risk of developing colon cancer higher.However, this also depends on the location and extent of disease. The risk increases with the length of time that patients suffering from ulcerative colitis and increases dramatically after ten years of illness.

The last and equally important risk factor is age. It has been shown that more than 90% of people who have colon cancer are 50 years old or older, with the average age at diagnosis is 64th


Prevention of colon cancer

Watch if you develop symptoms appear, it is obviously very important, but for this kind of cancer it is quite possible that it will develop for several years without having to be able to register any symptoms. Therefore, it is very useful to plan regular checks, especially in people over 50 years.

If the problem is colonoscopy diagnosed early, most cancers of the colon is absolutely treatable. If you therefore subject to a risk factor, the worst thing you can do is wait until you develop symptoms.

Another very important prevention is to eat a balanced diet. It has been shown that a diet rich in fat and cholesterol, foods with low fiber, increase the risk of colon cancer. Therefore protected by pulling into your diet foods rich in fiber and lots of vegetables. You can also protect that will avoid meal leading to diabetes, as diabetes is one of the risk factors.

The previous point is related to this, and that is weight control. If you are obese (with a BMI of 30 and above) increases the risk of colon cancer, and therefore is the best prevention to try to reduce weight. There is no simple advice how to do it, try to eat smart and live actively, and the risk of cancer is just a little lower. It has been shown that physical exercise reduces the risk of colon cancer by 40%! This is obviously not only obese people, but all of what they want to protect.

Another possibility is genetics. If you are among people whose family has in the past often appeared colon cancer, you should consider the question of genetic tests as part of your prevention. People who are carriers of gene mutations associated with hereditary colon cancer are at highest risk.

Therefore, it is very useful to know about it beforehand and consult with your doctor about genetic testing. Before you do this, you need to know in detail the medical history of your family. This is important not only for you, because when it can run across a lot of different things, not just colon cancer but for your doctor to analyze the needs of your risks as detailed as possible.

Do not smoke! Smoking voluntarily transports carcinogens into the body, and they will affect the growth of tumors.

Finally, try to avoid as much radioactivity. It was shown that radiation can cause cancer of the colon.The good news is that it would require a large amount of radiation to the cancer arose.


Signs and symptoms of colon cancer

With colon cancer is associated with many easily recognizable symptoms. The problem is that they often do not appear until the cancer is advanced.

The first symptom is blood in the stool. This occurs because the tumors bleed, so that when a tumor appears at the end of the colon or rectum, blood in stool should be clearly recognized. But if the tumor is at the beginning of the large intestine, blood dries before he gets out of the body, and will therefore invisible.

Other symptoms include diarrhea, vomiting, constipation or vice versa. If the tumor is at the end of the colon or in the rectum may be excess material is very hard to get through, causing constipation, or very thin stool.

The tumor can sometimes block the colon completely and cause internal obstruction. This means that nothing fails intestine, and sometimes can not flow into the large intestine or blood. This causes very severe and painful spasms, which may be a sign that the intestinal wall was perforated. This is a very acute condition and requires immediate medical assistance.

Unplanned weight loss is also one of the symptoms, because when the body starts by itself to reduce weight, it means that there is an error in metabolism. In this case, this means that the tumor produces chemicals that accelerate metabolism.

As already mentioned, tumors bleed, nor can it may not notice .. This can lead to a decrease in the value of iron in the blood and anemia, lack of oxygen in the blood. This is manifested in weakness and frequent, excessive fatigue.


Treatment of colon cancer

First, it is very important to accurate and timely diagnosis and it is essential to recognize the polyp or tumor. Diagnosis is done either irrigography, which is an X-ray or colonoscopy, which is mainly used to confirm the diagnosis, or to a tumor or polyp accurately located.

The most common treatment for colon cancer is surgery where the tumor odoperuje along with several lymph nodes. A healthy portion of the intestine is then re-combined together. If the tumor is in the rectum, the process is slightly more complicated. Rectum must be removed and the patient is done terminal called. Colostomy. The patient is done in the belly hole, which can leave the body of solid waste. Specialists then help people with colostomy return to normal life.

If the operation comes early enough, which means that the tumor is still located inside the colon only, and was not yet the process of metastasis, there is a high probability that surgery was the only intervention and the patient recovers completely. 80% of such patients after surgery lived a normal life. If the cancer gets to the next stage, which means that the tumor reaches through the wall of the colon and metastasizes to other parts of the body, patients surviving five years is less than 10%. If it is proven metastases, proceed to chemotherapy, which has as much to delay tumor recurrence and increase the patient’s chance of survival.

Radiation therapy is mainly used to treat colorectal cancer. It is important because it significantly reduces the risk of recurrence of the tumor.


How can I help myself

The best and indeed the only way to help is to protect yourself and if you belong to risk groups to have regular checks. This is particularly important if you are 50 years or more, if you belong to people with a family history of colon cancer appeared, or if you suffer from ulcerative colitis. You can also protect a balanced diet and active lifestyle.


Complications of colon cancer

Worst complication is when colon cancer reveal time, if it penetrates beyond the wall of the colon and about metastasis. Today is not too difficult for doctors to remove a tumor, which is located only in the colon, but if it spreads, it is necessary to put on chemotherapy, which is accompanied by numerous side effects and unwanted.

It takes a very long time (usually at least 6 months) and requires patience and energy. After passing all medical procedures also not certain that there will be a relapse. That is why even after a successful gether need for regular checkups and colonoscopy to any tumor recurrence quickly healed.

Other Names: colon carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, malignant tumor of colon, malignant tumor of colon

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