Description chickenpox

Chickenpox is a highly contagious acute disease, which is caused by human herpes virus called. HHV-3 (Varicella Zoster virus). This is a DNA virus, which is related to viruses, which are responsible for disease infectious mononucleosis, or cold sores.

The most frequent victims of this virus are children from three to ten years. In these patients, the progression of the disease generally trouble-free, but among children in the adolescent or adult can already experience serious complications. Varicella-spreading air (droplet infection) or by direct contact with an infected.


Risk factors for chickenpox

Perhaps the most important factor is the direct contact with a person who has chickenpox, or with her clothing or objects that touch their contaminated.

Danger also represents an older age. With increasing age proportionately increases the risk of complications that accompany chickenpox (meningoencephalitis, pneumonia etc.). Smooth progress of the disease occurs in children aged from three to ten years, while the complicated progress is recorded on adolescents, adolescents, pregnant women, newborns and people with weakened immune systems.


Prevention of chickenpox

Chickenpox is transmitted by direct contact with an infected person, air or objects that are contaminated with secretions or blistering of skin secretions of the respiratory system. Annually, the disease becomes ill approximately 35,000 people.

It is essential that before infection, thus isolating the infected persons, especially to protect newborns and people with weakened immunity because they have a very complicated course of varicella and its consequences can be fatal.

Effective prevention against infection with the chickenpox vaccination. This precaution gives us a 88 percent certainty that nenakazíme this disease and almost one hundred percent protection against any complications. The Czech Republic is a voluntary vaccination against varicella andreimbursed by health insurance.

One can therefore vaccination must be financially secure itself. One vaccine costs about CZK 1,400.Vaccination can undergo children from one year to twelve years. Those need only one dose. In children older than twelve years and adult dose should be administered two, and within six weeks.However, this vaccine should not be administered during pregnancy and at least three months before conception (fertilization).


Signs and symptoms of chickenpox

Virus to humans enters through mucous membranes and lymph tissues of the upper respiratory tract.Here the virus is multiplied and travels to other parts of the body.

First comes the incubation period, which lasts about fourteen to sixteen days.
After this period, which did not involve any signs of infection, there are first nonspecific symptoms, which are referred to as. Prodromi. For a sick person is observed fever or chills, and may experience stomach upset or diarrhea. Significant signal is beginning itching and pain of the skinat the site where the later formed blisters. All these problems are especially pronounced among people older than ten years.

One to two days before the creation of the first neštoviček patient suffers from fierce headacheand high fever. It was in this period, the human being capable of infecting the air or by direct contact and others, and therefore should remain in isolation.

Then there is a full outbreak. Starting to form the so-called. Pustules, that may be present in the five developmental stages. First, the small reddish spots, the macula. It expands and grows out of it prickling bud, this stage is referred to as so-called. Papule. This bud forming vesicles, filled withclear fluid bleb. After the liquid becomes turbid, and bleb formed pus is converted to pustule.After some time, vesicles burst, dried and formed in them so. Crust which, after one to two weeks peeled. One can not infect anyone until after all blistering creates crusting.

These itchy blisters appear first in the scalp, face and torso, and then also forms the limbs.However, you can also find on the mucosa of the nasopharynx, the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, the rectum, vagina and on the eyelids.

This rash does not suddenly, but progresses in some kind of waves. Blisters formed about five days, during which the body can be observed both when the macula, and at a stage when it is formed crust.

Step rash is variable. Usually the body is topped two hundred to three hundred blisters.Sometimes there may be even less than ten and in rare cases, they may make up to half thousand.

The acute phase of the disease lasts about four to seven days. Twenty days after the rash disappears.

Vaccinia virus belongs to the group. Herpes viruses which have the ability to enter a stage of latent infection, when the virus is established in the nerve ganglia, but does not produce any signs of their presence, and is not destroyed by the immune system.

If one person has undergone chickenpox, his body created antibodies that protect the body against infection with varicella another throughout life. Therefore, nearly no cases where one would ill twice this disease in their lifetime.

In some cases (eg. At the appropriate involvement of the dorsal spinal nerve root ganglia in systemic disease), but we may wake of the virus, which so far remained calm. It again reflected most occurrence of shingles.

Seldom is this illness ended in death. Itself is not fatal varicella, death can occur in adults who were affected by primary viral pneumonia.


Treatment of chickenpox

Because chickenpox viral origin, can not be used to the treatment of antibiotics.

The patient is advised blisters lubricated powder or liquid antiseptic ointment that accelerate drying rash, reduce itching and prevent further infection.

Furthermore, the patient prescribed medications for fever (antipyretics), medicines against headache.

If complications and will generate progressive varicella or varicellové pneumonia, it is necessary to use so called. Acyclovir, which prevents the propagation of the virus and reduces its impact on the body. Acyclovir is available either in tablet or injectable form. This method is used only in cases furthest.

It is important to report the illness to their physician.

A person who has chickenpox with uncomplicated course, should stay at home in isolation for a period of at least five days of rash or blisters to complete drying.

Patients suffering from various complications attendant to be hospitalized. In this case they must also remain in strict isolation and linen and various objects must be periodically disinfected to prevent infectious transmission to other people.


How can I help myself

In case you get sick chickenpox, it is necessary to be patient, to overcome the annoying itching, blisters and a rash especially scratch. Doing so could cause further inflammation and infection and the course of treatment would be very complicated.

Use prescribed liquid powders and ointments that help relieve the itching. Apply However, reasonably, because thick films can prevent drying of the blisters.

Provided you have a fever and headache, use appropriate medications.


Complications of chickenpox

Chickenpox can be accompanied by other problems that complicate medical treatment and health condition of the patient.

One may for example be a secondary bacterial infection caused by staphylococci.

Another complication brings varicellová pneumonia (), which is manifested especially in adult smokers. It also ** meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or ** liver inflammation,which often manifested in the elderly and in people with weakened immune systems.

It will be appreciated that the virus passes and placenta and fetal infection entails fatal consequences, e.g. severe birth defects. Provided the mother is affected by chickenpox within five days before or two days after birth, the newborn is usually affected so. Neonatal varicella, which presents a high risk of death for the child.

In newborns, teenagers, adolescents, pregnant women and people with weakened immune systems may be called. Progressive varicella, which has a negative impact on the visceral organs. As we see signs of severe abdominal pain or bleeding skin manifestations.

Other names: chickenpox, smallpox

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