Thyroid gland

Thyroid (Latin glandula thyroidea) is very important endocrine gland, which is important for the production of hormones T3 (tryjodtyronin) and T4 (thyroxine). These hormones are iodine, without which it would not be possible to produce hormones. Hormones are an integral part of the human body and help in many areas, poor thyroid function can much torment.

Anatomy of the thyroid gland

The thyroid gland is located at the front of the neck to the cranial (upper) part of the trachea, extending almost to the larynx. The gland has a red color and in the normal state is not palpable. Above the thyroid gland is located so. Adam’s apple or thyroid cartilage (cartilago thyroidea), which is especially for men very well discernible to the naked eye. Thyroid has a smooth surface and is divided into two lobes on either side of the trachea. The follicles (small sacs) which is formed by gland are stocked small capillaries. These vesicles are formed already mentioned hormones T3 and T4 and also the hormone calcitonin (important for the movement of calcium into blood from bones – prevents osteoporosis).

Parathyroid, two pairs of the sides are located on the rear side Sz. They produce parathyroid hormone, which has opposite effects than calcitonin and increases the calcium content in the blood.

Thyroid function

  1. It supports the normal development of the nervous system and growth (short stature, mental retardation in the fetus)
  2. Increases basal metabolic, oxygen consumption and heat production
  3. Increases process in which the formed protein – protein synthesis
  4. Increase heart rate and force of cardiac contraction

Thyroid Disease

  • Hypothyroidism (eg. Hashimtova disease) – reduced activity SZ is caused by iodine deficiency in the diet. SZ fails to produce its hormones in the normal extent, the human organism is slow, tired, sleepy, gaining weight (fluid retention, especially in the legs). The skin is dry, formed swelling DK, constipation, anemia, disorders of the menstrual cycle. Treatment with drugs: Levothyroxine – Euthyrox, Letrox.
  • Hyperthyroidism (eg. Graves – Basedow disease) – increased activity SZ, there is an overdose of iodine or drugs hypothyroidism. Typical symptoms are – weight loss, increased heat, diarrhea, hair loss, quickly greasy skin, tachycardia, arrhythmia, overall acceleration of the organism. Treatment with drugs: Antithyroid drugs, beta-blockers. Surgical treatment: removal NW and subsequent lifetime use Levothyroxine.
  • Goitre – enlarged thyroid gland, there is iodine deficiency, inflammation SZ, action or failure strumigens hormone production. Goiter may not affect the function of the afternoon. The symptoms are clear: visibly enlarged SZ (in whole or in part), difficulty swallowing or hoarseness.

Thyroid disorders can also arise SZ cancer, pregnancy or injury. If you experience any of the above symptoms, have a better SZ investigate.Examination takes a blood sample and palpation.

Sicknesses of this body part:



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