Stomach (ventriculus, Gaster) is a muscular organ saccate associated with the esophagus. It is stored in the abdomen below the left dome of the diaphragm. Curved shape recalls the bag.

Anatomically thereon we describe curvature esophagus entry and exit into the duodenum (the duodenum).

These are anatomical regions:

  • Major Curvature – a curvature of the left edge, ie bowing down left,
  • Curvature minor – is the name for the right edge curvature whose concavity faces upwards to the right,
  • cardiea or screen – which is the inlets esophagus to the stomach
  • pylorus or pylorus – the last part of the stomach, the constriction, which follows the duodenum.

Furthermore, we can stomach to describe its various sections – fundus ventriculi (bottom) – part closest to the diaphragm, the corpus ventriculi – body and pars pyloric stomach (pyloric) – an area where it passes into the esophagus.

When eating the stomach may increase, its size is therefore variable. Empty stomach tends to have a volume of 1-1.5 liters.

stomach lining

Stomach lining is formed monolayers of columnar epithelium on the surface of the protective phlegm. Mucosa of the stomach is not smooth, but creates algae called. Plicate gastricae. An important part of the mucosa is then glands produce substances needed for digestion of food. Glands according to its location to produce e.g. mucus, lysozyme, lipase, pepsin, hydrochloric acid, also known as salt, intrinsic factor, gastrin, and serotonin.

stomach Muscle

Muscle stomach is made up of three layers, these strong muscles to constrict, thereby creating digesta – chymus. At the end of the stomach is then annular muscle – pylorus (pylorus), on release of chyme into the duodenum are relaxed, otherwise closes the stomach and prevents the return of the contents of the duodenum, which is alkaline, back into the stomach.
Mechanical treatment could digest, digestion of food was not enough, therefore, is mixed with substances formed stomach – gastric juices. For the treatment process of food are the most important – hydrochloric acid enzymes – pepsin, which cleaves proteins and lipase cleavage fats.


Hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach acid environment such needs for its activities pepsin. Facilitates the digestion of meat, vitamins protect against deterioration, eg. Vitamin C, while destroying possible infectious agents.

The digestion time is dependent on the type of food. Fattier food remains in the stomach longer, up to 6 hours. For carbohydrate food are 2-3 hours.

Mechanically processed and partially digested food is peristaltic movements of the stomach wall is pushed through the pylorus – the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum.

The most common stomach problems

The most common difficulties associated with the stomach are various types of gastritis – inflammation of the stomach, which may be irritated by an incorrect composition of food, infections and others. Other well-known diseases are gastric ulcer resulting irritation of the gastric mucosa and in increased acidity of gastric juice and also bile acids returning chyme from the duodenum (duodenum) or breach mucosal protective mechanisms with the assistance of H. pylori. Then neither rare stomach cancer or polyps.

Sicknesses of this body part:

Celiac disease

Celiac disease

Description of celiac disease Celiac disease is a chronic autoimmune disease of the small intestine, which is sensitive to the mixture of proteins calledgluten or gluten (hence one of the names of the disease – gluten-sensitive enteropathy). Gluten is primarily…

Vitamin deficiency

Vitamin deficiency

Description of deficiency As trace elements indicate those elements which are in relatively small quantities necessary for the proper development and functioning. Mitochondria are found only in certain plant species and organisms and in an amount of less than 0.05%….

Nausea & Vomitting

What Are Nausea and Vomiting? Vomiting is an uncontrollable reflex that expels the contents of the stomach through the mouth. It is also called “being sick,” or “throwing up.” Nausea is a term that describes the feeling that you might…

Coffee ground vomitus

Coffee ground vomitus

Overview The term coffee ground vomitus describes vomit that looks like coffee grounds. This is a result of coagulated blood in the vomit. Vomiting blood is also known as hematemesis or coffee ground emesis. The color of the vomited blood…