Description burns

Burns formed on the basis of skin to excessive heat stimuli.Burns or combustiones represent a relatively severe skin damage.Temperatures above 45 ° C are perceived as pain by the organism. The vast majority of changes in the skin is localized in epidermis and upper dermis. The very severity of the burns is mainly due to its scope, depth, cause of injury, age and general condition of the patient.


extent of burns

The extent of burns can be determined as a percentage of the skin that is affected, the entire surface of the skin. As an indication, the doctor can determine the extent of burns by the so-called.Rules nine. This rule assigns each body part 9 or 18% of body surface.

The rule thus applies only to adults, children burned this rule is necessary to correct so that the scalp has more percent, while the skin of the legs percent less. So e.g. arm 9% of the body surface, while the back 18%, etc.

Definitively determine the extent of burns to a hospital, where tables are used according to Lund and Browder.

In principle, that if burnt more than 10% of the body surface in children and more than 15% of the body surface in adults, so it is a burn, which puts patients at risk of burn shock, a life-threatening condition. These patients require symptomatic treatment, hospitalization and monitoring.


The causes and mechanisms of burns

Ways to burn the entire series. We distinguish therefore scalds, burns, flame burns, resulting from rubbing or touching, burns, radiation changes, and electrical shock.


Signs and symptoms of burns

According to the nature of the burns, depth and clinical features differentiate burns of first, second and third degree. (Some authors still distinguish a fourth type of burns.)

a) First stage – dermatitis acuta erythematosus: a short time acting heat source, often a lighter burns. Instead damage is reddened, swollen and painful varying intensity.

b) Second stage – Acuta dermatitis bullosa: for swollen and reddened skin leads to formation of blisters that may coalesce into larger formations. If the burn properly treated, heal without scarring within weeks

c) The third stage – dermatitis acuta necrotica: burn extends into the deeper structures of the skin, some skin areas are completely destroyed and dead – lost to necrosis. Skin is brown-black or yellowish-white in color, appear on it hard and dry structures – příškvary – combustiones escharotica. The skin is destroyed in the entire thickness, including all the skin appendages (hair, glands and the like.). Any possibility of its regeneration is excluded.

d) The fourth stage – the additional term for a condition in which devastates burn subcutaneous fat, muscle fascia, muscles and bones.


treatment of burns

It depends on the condition of the patient, extent and depth of burns etc. In principle, only minor burns can be treated on an outpatient basis. Very effective treatment, the patient might itself immediately commence, the cool spot damage clean water or saline. It is important that the patient thus cool the damaged area of at least 3-4 hours. Then treated with antiseptic agents and thelike.

In severe burns comes the hospitalization, administration of analgesics (opioids into a vein)infusion (prevention of shock). 3-5 days after receipt shall cuts příškvary etc. The treatment is covered by a special branch of Burn Surgery.


complications burns

Burns heal with the formation of permanent skin damage and defects, which can (especially in the face of damage) cause cosmetic and psychosocial harm.

The most serious complication is a shock-like state due to significant fluid loss, which can lead to circulatory failure and death.

Erythema ab igne: is also among dermatoses which are induced by heat. The literal translation of the designation of this disease is (redness of the skin from the fire). Indeed most of erythema ab igne arises when contacted with excessive radiant heat. This disease affect people who use electric heating blanket, sit by the fireplace or stove, and rarely as a professional disease of founders and other staff.

Disease is manifested by formation of a relatively well-delimited reticular erythema localization, in which there is chronic contact with heat (more precisely, infrared rays). After some time at the same location form a brown discoloration of the skin (the formation of the so-called. Heat melanosis).

Treatment of the disease lies in two aspects: first, it is necessary to inform the patient that they must avoid further contact with radiant heat (to keep finding does not get worse). The second aspect of treatment is regular monitoring of patients (follow-up), as erythema ab igne is considered a precancer (lesions which may arise from cancer), so regular checks strive possible development of cancer or to detect as soon as possible.

In conclusion we can say that the skin damage that is caused by heat or other thermal effects can also occur burns. Corrosion is known professionally as cauterisatio, and it may occur when skin contact with acid or lye.

More dangerous is the ingestion of acid or lye. This substance causes the skin necrosis.

Other names: combustiones first degree burns, second degree burns, third degree burns, fourth-degree burns, dermatitis acuta erythematosus, dermatitis bullosa acuta, dermatitis Acuta necrotica

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