Description botulism

Botulism is a life-threatening illness in humans and animals. It is a botulinum toxin poisoning,also called sausage poison that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. The disease is widespread throughout the world, but fortunately not too časté- with us annually reported several cases of poisoning.

Botulinum toxin is one of the strongest paralytic poisons at all, causing temporary paralysis of various muscles. It acts on the point of contact nerve endings and muscle fiber, which is called theneuromuscular junction. There blocks the release of acetylcholine (a substance that acts on the diaphragm muscle cells and trigger events leading to its contraction) from the nerve endings.

Risk factors for botulism

The most common type of poisoning the children (infantile, intestinal) botulism. Small children are affected the most because of its lower resistance to the toxin. They have lower acidity of gastric juice, and other representations of bacterial microflora in the intestines, which could possibly dangerous clostridia displace from the intestine.

Arises ingesting spores which are very resistant resting bacterial cells which transform the bacteria under unfavorable external conditions for their further growth and multiplication. When changing external conditions (eg ambient temperature increases in the intestine after ingestion), the spores are able to turn to again in the active bacteria begin to produce toxin. Transfer clostridial spores were detected in honey, in most cases, but the origin of the disease fail to detect.

Another form of botulism is foodborne, botulism or food. This occurs after ingestion of food, that already contain growth of bacteria and botulinum toxin. Typically this is the case with domesticconsumption of vegetable canned food or sausages. Clostridium botulinum is live in the intestines of domestic animals and as a source of poisoning may become insufficiently washed casings used in the manufacture of sausages at home zabijačkách. Also in the faeces of animals getting into the soil, and then the source is poorly washed vegetables used to prepare cans.

In recent years, we have also been reported cases of food botulism, which were not related to the consumption of canned, but not sterilized foods in restaurants and delicatessens.

The least common form is a traumatic (morning) botulism. This occurs when Clostridia introduction into the wound, where bacteria multiply and produce toxins. The course is similar to the other two forms of botulism differ only later onset of symptoms.

Preventing botulism

Prevention of poisoning with botulinum toxin poses supervision over compliance with prescribed procedures in the production of meat, fish and vegetable preserves, and over their proper storage.

It is also recommended not to eat homemade sausages prepared or preserved, not sufficiently cooked. Alternatively, it is advisable to pre-simmer for at least 10 minutes, which is sufficient toincapacitate botulinum toxin, which can be found there.

Food contaminated with botulinum toxin not only changed neither taste nor smell! But often present simultaneously contamination and other bacteria that can change the properties of the food at first glance.

It is also important to thoroughly wash their hands after handling soil, even in the garden. When injuries and wounds contaminated soil is necessary to visit a doctor who wound thoroughly cleaned and prescribe antibiotics. When soil contamination injury is much more frequent emergence of another disease caused klostridiemi- tetanus.

symptoms of botulism

Botulism is manifested progressive paralysis (polio) muscles, which starts at the head and gradually extends downwards and will appear for 6- 72 hours after ingestion of food containing poison.

Appears dry mouth, hoarseness, difficulty in swallowing, inability to articulate. The affected has doubled and blurred vision, unable to focus up close or from a distance, narrowing his field of vision. Facial muscles have weakened, sick, he has no facial expression (hypomimie). He has drooping eyelids and gradually also developed a squint, the pupil is enhanced by downloading and unresponsive to light.
Gradually, with the expansion of poisoning leads to paralysis of the soft palate and disappear gag reflex, occurs persistent constipation and urinary disturbances. The affected person feels weakness in the limbs.

The most serious symptom is paralysis of respiratory muscles, which requires immediate connection to the victim to support breathing, because there danger of suffocation.
The patient remains conscious permanently, the deteriorating condition there is growing anxiety.

Body temperature in poisoning with botulinum toxin is not increased.

treatment of botulism

Poisoning demonstrates the typical clinical symptoms, and secondly laboratory. The laboratory card are used remnants of food, vomit or blood of a patient, which are analyzed for the presence of botulinum toxin.

Poisoning of sausage poison is treated essentially in isolation wards and is based on the earliest possible filing antibotulinového polyvalent serum, which cancels the effects of botulinum toxin on the neuromuscular junction.

It is also important supportive therapy, which seeks to frontload return the patient to good health.This is to ensure the supply of fluids, food, administered antibiotics. Those on the actual effect of botulinum toxin poisoning do not, however, provide protection against the formation of secondary infection.

To accelerate the exclusion of bacteria from the body are sometimes given a laxative or enema to purify the intestines. When the ingestion of contaminated food occurred only a few hours before seeing a doctor can also help filing of substances causing vomiting (emetics), or gastric lavage.

In the event that there is a paralysis of the respiratory muscles, place patient hospitalized in intensive care units and provide support him artificial respiration.

Necessity security scuba breathing is assessed according to the representation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.

In traumatic botulism it is necessary to clean the wound and give antibiotics, usually the penicillin.

How do I help myself

Botulism can be very serious, life-threatening symptoms. Therefore, it is necessary already suspected, seek professional help, preferably with the sample of food suspected of contamination.

complications botulism

Poisoning with botulinum toxin in most cases successfully cured, the mortality rate when seeking medical attention and timely administration of antiserum minimum.

Polio may persist for several weeks, over time, the functions of the body adjusts to its original state.

Other titles: foodborne botulism poisoning of sausage poison botulinum toxin poisoning, infant botulism, intestinal botulism, traumatic botulism, botulism injury early botulism, botulism early, children botulism, infant botulism, botulism in adults Children undetermined botulism

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