Bone cancer

Bone cancer

Description bone cancer

Tumoral bone disease can be divided into two groups. The first group consists of benign tumors, benign, which is usually not necessary to radically cure, just watching their development. The second group includes malignant tumors, malignant (cancer of bone), which can be further subdivided into two further subgroups – for primary and secondary tumors.

Primary tumors are those that originated from naturally occurring cells in the tissue – bone cells and cartilage cells. These tumors are called bone sarcomas – osteosarcoma (bone from the cells),chondrosarcoma (cartilage cells from bone), and rare Ewing’s sarcoma, a tumor of bone marrow. Sarcomas are very very rare, accounting for about 1% of all cancers in adults, are relatively more frequent, unfortunately, small children, where they constitute about 15% of all malignant tumors. Primary bone cancer occurs mainly in long bones of the legs and pelvis.

Secondary bone cancer (metastasis) is a tumor which originally created in a body, and a straight segment, blood or lymphatic got into bone. Metastases the large majority of all cancers located in bone, and cells that constitute them are similar to cells of organs on which they rely. Most often in the bone metastatic prostate, breast, lung, colon and rectum, stomach, renal, female genital organs and others.

Risk factors for bone cancer

The cause of tumor formation in general is a change (mutation) in the genetic information of cells.Such changes that could lead to the formation of tumors in our body are happening daily by thousands, no damaged cells are destroyed by the immune system. When this check fails, mutated cells begin to multiply uncontrollably and mutation passed on to their daughter cells.

The causes of these mutations are different – there may be a hereditary predisposition, which is usually the cause of tumor formation in early childhood.

Another cause of cancer is the effect of various substances, so-called mutagens on human organism. Mutagens can be for example those physical origin (for example X-ray radiation, UV radiation), also a variety of chemicals (substances contained in cigarette smoke, nitrite, alcohol) and viruses (such as HPV that cause cervical cancer in women).

It is therefore always the sum of genetic predisposition, lifestyle and overall immune status.

Primary bone cancer often develops after prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy in the treatment of other cancers, it may not appear until several years. Also for bone disease called Paget’s disease (a disease caused by an abnormal bone remodeling, in which the bones thicken – often translates to bones of the skull), with malignant bone tumors occur more frequently than ever.

Prevention of bone cancer

Since we do not know exactly what causes tumors can not even tell you what to do to avoid them.

Symptoms of bone cancer

Bone tumors are extremely dangerous disease, especially in terms of their diagnosis. They recognize the fact too hard, often no specific symptoms.

Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor occurs mainly in young people under 20 years of age, older people generally arises on the basis of other bone diseases. It is more common in boys. It can affect any bone, but most often occurs in the femur, tibia or humerus, and very soon after its formation metastasizes (based tumor foci in other organs – mainly in the lungs, brain, and other bones). Manifests long blunt or short shooting pain – especially at night, as well as swelling of the bone and also slightly elevated body temperature. Sometimes it also looks like a painful growth on the bone surface. The patient feels generally sick, lose appetite, lose weight, not good.

Chondrosarcoma is also most common in children and young people, is located in the pelvis, the femur and humerus, and often spread via the blood to the lungs.

Ewing’s sarcoma, which, besides the long bones also occurs in flat bones (scapula, ribs, clavicle), primarily metastasize to other bones, and then to other organs, like the lungs. It manifests like osteosarcoma, but here predominant symptoms general disease, such as elevated fever, sweats, weight loss, weakness.

Treatment of bone cancer

Upon the appearance of suspected bone cancer, it is necessary to visit a doctor as soon as possible – the earlier the diagnosis, the greater the prospects of curing cancer!

Bone tumors are most often diagnosed taking a radiograph of the affected bone, where an experienced doctor – radiologist is able to recognize his presence. Further blood samples are taken, which are monitored levels so-called tumor markers (which are specific substances, which levels are elevated in certain cancers).

The surest method for obtaining a diagnosis is to remove a bone sample (biopsy) and then sent to the pathology department, where his medical pathologist specially stained and placed under the microscope. Depending on the degree and nature of the differences between the cells located in the sample from normal bone cells can then determine the type of tumor involved.

On the way forward, then working round the doctors – specialists in various fields of medicine (oncology, orthopedics, surgery), who according to the results of pathology evaluate which type of therapy will be most appropriate in a given case.

In most cases, the tumor must operate, and is important during the operation to select out the entire tumor. The defect bone is then replaced The titanium inner prosthesis or bone graft. But sometimes, unfortunately, necessary (mainly because of the vastness of the tumor) affected part of the limb amputated.

In some cases, such therapy requires only irradiation. So it is mostly in Ewing’s sarcoma, which is to this method of treatment is very sensitive and usually responds very příznivě- can lead to a cure.

Most often, but the treatment of bone cancer is a combination of multiple treatments – that surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Because high doses of radiation and chemotherapy used distinctively have many side effects (most frequently fatigue, nausea, vomiting, inflammation of skin and mucous membranes), when using a combination of these methods it is possible to use lower doses of each of them, and thus reduce the incidence of side-effects of treatment on minimum.

After the cure of the tumor should be regularly to see your oncologist, which is made radiograph of the operated bone and lungs (from the possible emergence of metastases, the treatment of which has not yet know).

Of course, when the emergence of any other complaints (pain, weight loss, weakness, difficulty breathing, persistent cough, pneumonia unresponsive to treatment), it is necessary to contact a doctor immediately!

How can I help myself

Bone cancer is a very serious disease that can not be cured by other than a radical way. Therefore, when observing long-term non-specific symptoms, which, of course, do not always mean cancer should be contacted by a doctor who will decide on further action.

Complications of bone cancer

Complications of cancer therapy may be a loss of a limb. At the present time, but can be well solved using her prosthetic, is that the patient can continue to live a full life.

With Cancer comes many other issues – to change the economic situation of the patient, which, together with low social status, in which the patient is, can result in the development of psychological problems. Oncologists are but the emergence of such situations are ready and able to provide technical assistance to the patient.

The worst possible complication of bone cancer is the formation of secondary tumors – metastases in other organ of the body, or the return of the original tumor.

Other names: malignant bone tumor, osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, chondrosarcoma

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