Description atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis, also sometimes called the disease of the 20th century and is among the diseases of civilization. Although, these signs are not entirely accurate. Because atherosclerosis was described in the 18th century, our ancestors had to cope with even earlier. Unfortunately, in modern times it is a massive increase really undeniable. It might seem paradoxical that this disease is particularly in developed countries, one of the leading causes of death. Czech Republic is no exception.

This disease is a long ongoing degenerative process, the essence of which is called deposition .: atherogenic agents, particularlylipids (fats) in the wall of the artery.

The affected artery is normally smooth, but at the beginning atherosclerosis is damaged and the surface of its inner wall is roughened. This artery is then easily can capture atherogenic substance brought by blood.Substances to be collected, sequentially accumulate and begin to cause stenosis of the artery, or even its closure. Blood can not flow adequately to other parts of the body, which has affected artery supplying the task.

The causes of atherosclerosis

The emergence and development of this disease with multiple contributing factors, which can be divided into three main groups, and the vast majority is closely related to poor lifestyle and habits of many people today.

Firstly, it is a surplus of atherogenic (atherosclerosis forming) in the blood. For these substances are considered mainly lipids (cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides). Excess of these substances is caused by a disorder of metabolism in the body or is highly accepted food.

The second factor causing this disease, is a disorder of the endothelium (lining) within the artery. This disorder can cause local formation of blood clots that narrows or completely clogged artery.

Below the last cause found many officials who assist in the development of atherosclerosis. They are, for example: high blood pressure, obesity, smoking, genetic factors, stress, hyperlipoproteinemia, diabetes and related disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.

Atherosclerotic disease has several stages of development. The first stage is called lipoid (fatty) stains. They are yellowish deposits in the arterial wall, mainly composed of cholesterol.

Other phases are fibrous and ateromové plates, which are again yellowish deposits already but not smooth, protrude above the surface of the wall and comprise a thin greasy content. If the cover layer ateromového sheet breaks, its contents were leached with blood and the arterial wall formed so .: ateromový ulcer that this damages the vessel. In the place damaged by atherosclerotic process secondarily begins to form the thrombus, or blood clot, which greatly narrows the lumen of the artery.

The last phase is calcification when the affected vessel segment deposited calcium salts, and bearing hardens.

Signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis

When atherosclerosis in the early stages, the patient may not suspect anything, this process is a long time without symptoms. Gradually, however, a gradual narrowing of the lumen of the artery and region (tissues, organs), which is insufficiently artery supplying blood flow.

Manifestations are thus dependent on the portion of the arterial segment which is affected. But always true that the larger section of the artery is affected, the worse the damage and tissue perfusion.

If atherosclerosis located on cerebral arteries leads to various psychological changes,atherosclerotic dementia or to sudden stroke or stroke. A sudden stroke will be reflected differently long unconsciousness and after the patient is mostly paralyzed on one half of the body (right, left) is unable to fend for themselves, often can not speak and understand what others want him to say.

If the affected artery supplying the eye, there is neuroretinopatie or optic nerve damage and subsequent blindness.

Another route which may be affected, and the heart (coronary) artery. Then there is a penetration of the two forms of ischemic heart disease and that is to the left heart failure and acute myocardial infarction. Their symptoms are chest pain, rapid breathing and rapid pulse, cold opocenost, paleness, anxiety and shortness of breath.

When renal arterial disease develops image called .: nephrosclerosis which ends kidney failure.

The last section, which is often affected by atherosclerosis, the arteries in the lower limbs,resulting in pain in extremity, their cold, limp and to possible development of gangrene.

Risk factors for atherosclerosis

The most common and biggest risk of atherosclerosis are lack of exercise, unhealthy, especiallyhigh-fat diet, and especially smoking.

For additional factors are considered excessive stress, obesity, high blood pressure, heredity,impaired carbohydrate metabolism (diabetes), lipid metabolism disorders(hyperlipoproteinemia).

The more risk factors are present simultaneously, the greater the risk of atherosclerosis. The risk is also high LDL cholesterol in the blood, which helps saving atherogenic agents. (HDL cholesterol is beneficial vice versa)

treatment of atherosclerosis

Before starting treatment, it is imperative that the doctor found blood test cholesterol and also performed an ultrasound or angiography, which confirms the stenosis of the arteries.

Treatment should always be initiated and dietary regime in place. The basis of the diet with a significant reduction of fat. It is necessary to avoid the consumption of animal fats. Daily cholesterol intake should not exceed more than 300mg, which is roughly the amount that can be found in one egg yolk.

The next step is a significant restriction of alcoholic beverages. For people suffering from high blood pressure, it is also necessary to reduce salt intake.

Body weight should be maintained between 18.5 to 25.0, these values are calculated according to the results of body mass index (BMI). Reducing body weight also helps measure the following regime posed perform adequate physical activity. Under this concept hides regular exercise at least 30 minutes a day, four times a week.

If all the above measures are not enough and the process of atherosclerosis worsens, comes the use of drugs. Medicines that are used are called hypolipidemic agent. Which are medicines that statins, nicotinic acid or fibrate resins, which are utilized, depending on the type of cholesterol that need to be adjusted. Perhaps their combinations.

How can I help myself

As mentioned above, it is necessary to adjust your diet. In the kitchen, replace all animal fats for vegetable. Your diet, try to get closer to healthy eating. Eat whole wheat bread rather than white and vice versa prefer to put white meat in front of a dark, they are also suitable seafood. Eat plenty of vegetables and fruits.

It is important not to smoke, and the habit at least minimized.

Also avoid alcohol and especially spirits. Someone, however, recommends daily consumption of red wine 2dcl. Its positive effects are not proven, but if this amount will be considered a maximum, the progression of atherosclerosis it worse.

If you are overweight, reduce it through diet (which selects the expert) and through regular exercise. It is suitable as cycling, swimming or brisk walking at least and, as mentioned above, at least four times a week, for 30 minutes.

If you have diabetes or high blood pressure, it is important that these diseases were properly treated (under the expert guidance) and this treatment followed. This disease is the progression of atherosclerosis often exacerbate and accelerate.

complications of atherosclerosis

Complications of the disease is considered a narrowing or blockage of arteries, aneurysm and rupture of the aneurysm.

Narrowing and obstruction of an artery causing ischaemia supply to tissue or organ. The narrowing occurs slowly due to the deposition of fatty substances. The closure may also occur gradually or suddenly and blood clot.

An aneurysm is an extension of the arteries, in particular the part where he tries to settle a blood clot or fatty substances.

Rupture of an aneurysm is a serious complication, since it is a burst, to produce excessive bleeding.

Other names: hardening of the arteries, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, atherosclerosis obliterans, macroangiopathy

Share your experience: