Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease

Description of Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is a severe brain disease affecting mainly the elderly. It causes irreversible changes in the brain cells and the loss of brain matter. Warning sign is that a person begins to suffer memory loss, unusual, behaves aggressively, confused and unable to get lost even in his own house. In this case it is necessary as soon as possible go to the doctor and begin to fight this insidious disease.


Cause and risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease

The causes of Alzheimer’s disease are not yet fully understood.There is probably a complicated coincidence of several factors with a particular culprit that triggers the disease. It could be a virus, environmental exposure and immune disorders.

The most important risk factor is definitely high age. With age, the risk of disease is rising sharply. For an unknown reason, they begin to damage brain cells after the 65th year for every twentieth and after the 80th year even every fifth man! Although it can affect younger individuals, but it is not too frequent. In the Czech Republic the number affected is estimated at around 100,000, and as the population ages, the number will increase significantly.

Surveys have shown that women get sick more often than men, for which he is probably guilty or hormones generally longer average life expectancy.

One of the important roles played by loss of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a substance needed for conduction of nerve impulses. The cells lose the ability to exchange information and it leads to a large disruption of brain function to the so-called. Dementia.
The reason may be a cluster of betaamyloidu otherwise normal and harmless protein. At the beginning of the disease, this protein likely will store between brain cells, which then die.

Also plays a role heredity. The chance of developing the disease increases the incidence of the disease among close relatives and especially before the 65th birthday (parents, grandparents or siblings).

The disease is more trained brain as Alzheimer’s disease affects more people with less education.Loss of memory and intellectual abilities is directly proportional to the length of training. However, scientists have shown that when the disease affects the intelligent man runs faster and zákeřněji.

Also, tremors and head wounds may contribute to the disease. For boxers with Alzheimer’s disease also occurs in middle age.


Signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

Disease begins slowly and quietly.

If an older person is constantly searching for something, it is often attributed to her age. Seeking things appear in strange places. “Grandma, why do you have the keys in the oven?”

A typical feature is that you can remember things from long ago and I still talk about them again, but the activities that took place a short while ago she could not recall. He can not tell you what he had for lunch or what you do today. It may be asking banal questions, and these questions constantly repeated. Severe memory should be the first clue to bring your loved one to the doctor!

There are increasing problems with speech. The affected person has trouble naming things and used to do a copy of “The way of the flowing water.” Hence the famous joke, “What is the name of the German what I’m hiding things?” Speech is generally austere and often individual sentences do not make sense. Also not able to speak fluently.

Another symptom of the disorder in time and orientation. The patient is often unable to tell if it is a Monday or Saturday, and what is just a month or a year.

There is a change of personality and behavior. Tired of him previously favorite activities can be aggressive, selfish and surly. It is usually very passive and certain activities it is necessary to encourage him. A person does not admit illness and feels healthy.

In advanced appear hallucinations and delusions different. Accuses loved ones and strangers of conspiracy, theft and lies.

In the final stage of the disease the patient has trouble walking, food and urinary incontinence.Repeats only a few words or stops talking altogether. It is completely dependent on another person.


Examination of Alzheimer’s disease

If you suspect that a loved one might be Alzheimer’s disease, it is important to see a doctor immediately. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the more it can slow its progression.

Locate practitioner and consult with him his suspicions. The doctor makes the patient ECG, urine and blood collected for analysis, do chest X-ray and talk with you about medications and family history.When in doubt, carry out examinations of the brain computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging.

If the suspicions are confirmed, it sends the patient to a neurologist (a specialist who deals with the nervous system), geriatrician (a specialist in diseases of the elderly) or a psychiatrist(specialist in behavioral disorders, memory and psyche).

A doctor should be the mainstay for several years, so choose carefully.


Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease

Alzheimer’s disease is currently incurable. Drugs are designed primarily for early stage disease.Therefore, it is important early diagnosis and initiation of treatment.
Disease affects not only the patient but also his family and loved ones – is therefore important to include treatment.

One of the main drugs are cognitives that in the early stages of the disease called improves cognitive function (thinking, memory and orientation). Help prevent the degradation of brain acetylcholine required (required for the transmission of nerve signals). They are really at the beginning, most of the intermediate phenotype.

Other drugs are used by hypnotics (sleep disorders), neuroleptics (to remove aggression and restlessness), antidepressants (alleviates depression) and anxiolytics (depressants, anxiety).

Alzheimer’s disease itself is not fatal disease. Average survival is given eight years after the onset of symptoms.


Prevention of Alzheimer’s disease

Outbreaks of disease can not influence, but a healthy lifestyle and exercise strengthens the brain to the body and then is able to resist the disease longer.

Eat regular fresh fruits and vegetables, plenty of fiber and fish. Avoid animal fats and sugars. Do not forget regular exercise, of course, with regard to your health. Regular walks should be the foundation.

Do not forget your favorite hobbies and TRAP your brain crosswords, quizzes and listening to music.

Aging, genetic endowment or gender, however, not influence.


How can I help myself

Firstly, it is necessary to establish the diagnosis of the disease in time. Only early detection can delay dependence on others.

Find out where you can help. In your area there are certainly counseling center ČALS (Czech Alzheimer Society). If you live alone, it is necessary to think of the future and to secure appropriate care. It is also appropriate to ensure a meeting with a lawyer about future medical care, asset management and inheritance.

Do not refuse help friends and family will be happy to help in difficult moments.


For caregivers of sick

Do not forget to take care of themselves. Caring for the sick is too tiring, so it is important to remember that regular exercise, a healthy diet and relaxation.

The important point is to look into the future. Personality and behavior of a loved one will change and it is possible that you are in a more difficult stage even know. Admit that maybe you can not take care of him all alone. Sick it can easily upset. Please accept help from friends or counseling centers.
You are not sick can affect what causes the disease.

An important activity you can do to the victim of Alzheimer’s disease do is provide some points for his safety and health:
1. Ensure regular use of medications. Ill they may forget or not they ingest too much.
2. In any case, avoid driving, it is necessary for the safety of all, even if the patient does not want to give up this activity.
3rd lock the dangerous cleaners, matches and drugs.
4. Important and So keep valuables locked in a secret place. Sick without wanting many things moving on the incomprehensible place.
5th out of reach of the patient involved in home appliances such as ovens and irons. Install a smoke detector.
6. Remove dangerous objects like moving carpets, rickety chairs or sharp edges. Good is properly illuminate the whole apartment, for example, the reaction of photocells. Sick of seeing so well on the road and you can give a warning signal that sleeps and walks around the house.
Useful seventh will lock the bathroom so sick nevytopil neighbors and put on the battery temperature limiter to burn yourself with hot water.
8. For patients there is a project of Safe Return. If strays ill and unable to return home, has in its hands a plastic bracelet with the inscription “Please help and call the number 283 880 346”. The operator at the touch with his family. This is of course possible to replace your own bracelet with the name, address and telephone number.
9. Adhere to a regular diet and plenty of fluids. Ill help you if you eat with him.
10th Let none ill, he’s wrong, it’s no use. It is important to learn to communicate with the patient. Instead of interrogative sentences use the dial: “Do you have food on the table” instead of “Hungry?”.
Patients are unable to tell the difference between the present and the future, so they can insist on visiting the dead person. Suitable have to say that that person is on vacation, at work or out to dinner. Persuasion to the contrary would have caused stress not only the patient, but also to themselves. It’s hard to understand some things.

11. Even if the patient does not know what it was, who you are and whether she has any children,feel the emotions around and often mimics. If not exactly in his own world, a smile will answer smiling and crying tears of anxiety and vice versa. It is therefore important friendly and welcoming attitude around.

12th Offer the patient a simple activity that is capable of doing. Do not let his brain without activity. Suitable as peeling nuts, folding socks straightening pins. Play games, sing and especially talking to him, even if you evidently do not understand or does not respond. Enjoy bright, simple sentences and forget their gestures that speak for you.


Complications of Alzheimer’s disease

A man with advanced Alzheimer’s disease should not be left alone. Can cause serious problems if you forget to close the water, turn off the gas and let the straightener.

Alzheimer’s disease greatly reduces the body’s defenses and even ordinary flu can pose great difficulties.

Mental illness is especially difficult for relatives and friends. It’s hard to deal with the fact that you did not recognize loved ones and still is dependent on your care.

Other names: Alzheimer’s disease, Alzheimer’s, Alzheimer morbus

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