Description AIDS

The first case of the disease was recorded 25 years ago and since then has necessitated approx. 25 million lives. AIDS is globally considered as one of the leading causes of death, and it is often interpreted as the greatest threat today.

This disease is caused by penetration of the HIV virus (Human Immunodeficieny virus) that manifests a number of symptoms and infectious diseases. It is the damage to the human immune system, which at the least, common diseases is not able to respond and fails.

HIV virus infects T cells, which are the structures of the immune system, which recognize foreign particles in the body. They are formed in the thymus and belongs to a specific cellular immunity.When contact with a foreign substance cause different strong immune response and the antigen can remember. For repeated intrusion and a compound recognize and immediately begin the appropriate immune response.

The HIV virus, unlike other viruses changes the structure of the affected cells, integrating their own code to the genetic material of the infected cell. This will become its integral part. After some time, the virus is latent (ie. SPI) and then causes the T cell to produce more virus particles which are released into the bloodstream. By becoming infected human infectious and develops at hisAIDS.

The effectiveness of the immune system after infection with HIV gradually decreases and the person becomes more vulnerable to various infections and cancer.

People who are infected with HIV but do not always get sick from AIDS. It is reported that about 20% of infected appeared only minor symptoms of AIDS and another 20% even for no changes. We do not know whether they have enough time has elapsed for us to be able to assess whether AIDS in these people after all only nepropukne.

Currently we speak of pandemic occurrence of AIDS. In 2007, the disease killed 2.1 million people worldwide, the majority of these deaths are related to sub-Saharan Africa. Although developed countries contribute annually to research and prevention of AIDS huge amounts of money, there is still no cure or vaccine against this deadly disease and its incidence is still very high.

Treatment of AIDS progression of the disease can still slow down and improve the quality of life of individuals affected by HIV. Antiretroviral agents are, however, very costly, and are not available in many countries.


Risk factors AIDS

Although the HIV virus very sensitive and easily zneškodnitelný common disinfectants and physical effects, there are three ways of its transmission.

HIV is detectable in bodily fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk. In order to transmit, it must penetrate into the healthy organism a certain minimum quantity of the liquid, which is referred to as infectious dose.

Risk transfer is therefore a risk under these circumstances:

A) Unprotected sexual intercourse

This route is one of the most common. A much greater risk of HIV transmission from man to woman, because the semen is it contained far greater numbers than in vaginal secretions, and women are also more susceptible to infection. Previously denoted AIDS as a disease of homosexuals, HIV transmission is anal intercourse is the easiest. Today we know that without risk is not normal intercourse, and even oral sex. Also, the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases can increase the risk of virus transmission of HIV violation of the epithelial barrier, or the occurrence of genital ulcers.

B) Blood Way

HIV transmission through blood transfusions is already in the Czech Republic is nearly impossible since 1987 is because of all the blood donors specifically controlled.

Most often, however, a transfer of the blood by sharing needles or solutions to individuals with HIV infection, especially among drug addicts.

It should also be attentive to the joint use of razors, toothbrushes and other toiletries. All surgical instruments, respectively. tattoo needles, etc. should be properly disinfected, otherwise there is a risk of transmission as well.

C) from mother to child

Woman infected with HIV virus can easily pass on their child, either during birth or breastfeeding.All pregnant women are tested for the presence of this virus, since if the woman is positive, it can be a risk of transmission to reduce by 2/3. After birth, these women should not breast feed.


AIDS prevention

Effective prevention is protected intercourse using a condom.
Coitus interruptus or the use of hormonal contraceptives and vaginal pessary or at least not enough protection.

You should also everyone who is in contact with HIV affected, take your own toiletries and pregnant women with AIDS should not breast-feed their children.


Myths About AIDS

Although it is a “modern” diseases spread in the population of the whole country a number of different myths.

Most of them relates to the transmission of this disease, which is the life of AIDS patients often much more complicated. Many people because they think that can infect the example. Handshakes, hugs, shared baths in the pool, using the same toilet, or in the crowd a kiss.

In African countries, by contrast, will meet with superstition that sexual intercourse with a virgin cancure AIDS, which is perhaps one of the reasons why it is in this area the disease so widespread.

Just as it is not true that tattoos and piercings are completely safe, and that the disease is spread only among homosexuals and drug addicts.


Signs and symptoms of AIDS

Immediately after being infected with the HIV virus usually remains at a standstill and thus does not show any symptoms, but it does not mean that it is not contagious at this stage.

After some time, often after several years, the virus becomes active. Begins to multiply and infect T lymphocytes (one kind of white blood cell), reducing the body’s defenses. Among the first symptoms usually include enlarged lymph nodes in more parts of the body (neck, armpits, groin, …), fever,inflammation and rash. It may also appear vomiting, nausea, headache and muscle pain, and indigestion.

In the second phase of the disease, most of these symptoms disappear, so called phase asymptomatic (asymptomatic).

Usually after more than 10 years of HIV virus will get into the third phase (in children is disease progression faster than in adults). In this period the immune system has been severely damagedand becomes easily challengeable various infections and cancer.

In the fourth stage is already fully developed AIDS.
Attack by any virus, bacteria, microorganism, or parasite can cause death. Approximately 35% of patients are affected by Kaposi’s sarcoma, a cancer disease, manifested by skin patches. A risk of developing lymphoma (cancer of the lymph nodes) is about 100 times more likely than healthy individuals. The majority of patients in the course of the disease will have neurological problems and typical for AIDS is alternating periods of improvement and deterioration in health.


HIV test

This blood test reveals the presence or absence of HIV, thus not itself acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

In the Czech Republic for the presence of antibodies to HIV testing for all donors of blood, sperm and organs, and pregnant women. Investigations may undergo every citizen.

Thus, a positive test indicates HIV infection, a negative test excludes it. The test is not fully reliable if elapsed from infection at least 3-6 months. Testing takes place in hospitals or for hygienic stations, even anonymously.


treatment of AIDS

Although this is an incurable disease, it must be detected early and start treatment.

Current treatment for HIV infection consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Is applied since 1996, it can be considered as very efficient.

Scientists are currently trying to develop an effective vaccine to prevent HIV transmission. This vaccination would also be less expensive, and thus could afford even people from developing countries. However, even after thirty years of research, no vaccination fails to prevent the spread of the virus.

So far, none of the forms of alternative medicine has failed to demonstrate a positive effect on the disease itself, could only affect some of its side effects.

Some studies also point to the positive effect of multivitamin and mineral supplements.

The average life expectancy of people infected with the HIV virus without initiating therapy is estimated to be 9-11 years. After the diagnosis of AIDS in areas without good medical care varies between 6-19 months. It is proven that the treatment method using antiretroviral therapy can prolong the life of HIV affected up to 20 years. It is believed that this period should be in the following decades, gradually increasing in relation to scientific research.


complications AIDS

Concomitant treatment with antiretroviral therapy significantly reduced the risk of many complications. We can say that they have today in developed countries almost there.

There are therefore especially in people who have not undergone this treatment, or in areas where antiretroviral therapy products not approach because of the high cost.

The most frequent complications can be categorized according to their originators.

Bacterial infections may cause the following diseases: bacterial pneumonia, tuberculosis, orsalmonella.

‘s Virus agents are the cause of cytomegalovirus, hepatitis, Herpes simplex virus or human papilloma virus.

A fungal infections are agents of candidosis or meningitis.

Often infected with the HIV virus become victims of various parasites, while the most common diseases is toxoplasmosis.

The greatest propensity, with regard to cancer, is reported in Kaposi’s sarcoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.

Possible complications of AIDS also include neuropsychiatric disorders. It is a disorder of consciousness, seizures, behavioral changes, delirium, dementia, sleep disorders, or painful conditions.

Also described is called. Wasting syndrome. This complication causes at least 10% weight loss of body weight, diarrhea, chronic weakness and fever.

Other Names: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, HIV

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