Vitamin deficiency

Vitamin deficiency

Description of deficiency

As trace elements indicate those elements which are in relatively small quantities necessary for the proper development and functioning. Mitochondria are found only in certain plant species and organisms and in an amount of less than 0.05%. For some elements not always clear their biological importance. Man has in her body about 20 trace elements. These include lithium (Li), aluminum (Al), nickel (Ni), silver (Ag), rubidium (Rb), cesium (Cs), bromine (Br), molybdenum (Mo) and others. Their consumption for each organism is different. During a varied and balanced diet it is not in our geographical and economic conditions generally high deficiency of these trace elements.

Their main significance is that in many cases are necessary for the proper functioning of enzymes. Enzymes are biocatalysts that participate in the reactions that take place in the body.These reactions could in some cases may take place even without enzymes, but for a much longer period. Since enzymes are among the proteins, they can only operate within a certain temperature – at a temperature over 40 degrees will stop the operation at a temperature above 60 degrees to their precipitation (this is actually the same response as when dip the meat in hot water and at the surface begins towards white) and the irreversible destruction.

In addition to the trace elements that we need especially for the function of enzymes they are necessary and minerals – are also elements present in all plants and organism field in excess of 0.05%. Without the presence of the organism they would not be able to function. The main elements of the (primary) that worldwide living nature are most are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) . They constitute the majority of the stocks that make up the body. Carbon is found in every cell, which is found not only in our body, but anywhere in the world. Hydrogen is present in the body along with the oxygen in the form of water, phosphorous then forms part of the genetic information (DNA and RNA) and nitrogen is one of the main elements forming proteins. Receiving these elements happens with any food because they occur at all, what we eat (these elements are in all living things).

Additional elements (secondary) are also essential for life in the body are represented but in lesser amounts than the primary elements. As well as the main elements are additional features included in all life on Earth (plants, animals, microorganisms …). These elements are seven, and include sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl) and iron (Fe). Usually they occur in the form of ions or bound in complex compounds.

Sodium and chloride ions

Forms the main part of fluid which occur outside of the cell. This creates a balance between the fluid which is located in the cell (cytoplasm) and the outside fluid (e.g. interstitial fluid). Should an increase of these ions, the cell begins to deprive e water and locally swelling may occur. But they also have other important functions. Sodium and potassium have in the body about 100 g per day should take 3-5 g of sodium and about 3.5 g of chloride ions. Both of these elements are found mainly in table salt, but also brings in food when consumed vegetables.


Potassium is opposite to the incidence of sodium and chlorine. It occurs mainly because in the cells.Overall, we have it in the body of around 150 g and the daily dose should be in the range of 1-4 g. A rich source of potassium meat, as well as apricots, bananas and potatoes.


Calcium is then found primarily in bones and teeth, where hydroxyapatite is part of – a compound that forms the main bone mass. But it has also irreplaceable in the blood. Without calcium would not be possible to cause clotting and bleeding man would even small wounds bled to death. We calcium in the body for about 1-1.5 kg per day and should be receiving it, about 1 g. The best sources of calcium are milk, cheese, legumes and nuts.


Magnesium is another complementary element and the body have him generally around 20 to 30 g and the food located in nuts, peas, milk and meat.


Iron in the body is to a surprisingly large number – every person should have the right 4-7 g. The functioning of the organism, its presence is strictly necessary – is part of hemoglobin, which fills the red blood cells (erythrocytes). Hemoglobin bind respiratory gases – in the lungs is that the oxygen in the tissues oxygen is then released and instead binds carbon dioxide. It is then in the lungs in turn stale and exchanged for oxygen. Without the iron would participate but this process is not possible. Iron is found mainly in the intestines, eggs, fish, nuts and leafy green vegetables.

Risk factors for vitamin deficiencies

In our conditions, lack of micronutrients and complementary elements occurs only to a limited extent, which is due to dietary variety. Thus, the risk factor may be one-sided diet or skipping some foods from your diet.

Trace and complementary elements for us are important, but if we are consumed in high doses, we could gradually poison. In addition, some drugs increase the absorption of certain elements (such as iron in patients with a deficiency) and therefore it is important that after their accidental ingestion should be children or people who have not been identified, was immediately searched for a doctor.

In some women, there is a deficiency of iron, which is then necessary to compensate the additional preparations.

prevention of vitamin deficiencies

Prevention is a balanced, varied diet which meets the conditions of rational nutrition. Usually it is not over potřebase intake of trace elements mean something, because our conditions are present in the diet in excess.

Probably the most common deficiency is iron deficiency, but that is fairly easily compensable.Prevention in this case the consumption of offal, leafy vegetables, nuts and eggs.

Because we should not take large amounts of certain elements, for example, it is recommended do not oversalted food.

symptoms of deficiency

Since each element in the body has a different function, are also symptoms in individual different deficiencies.

Lack of sodium and chloride ions causes dehydration, because these ions actually trap water in the body. Therefore, if there is little, dehydration occurs. Its symptoms are dry mouth, thirst(which may be absent in the elderly), headache. When the longer term it may come as anorexia, decreased ability to concentrate and so on. Since lower amounts of water in the body decreases and the volume of blood is reduced at the same time blood pressure. Conversely, when an excess of sodium, blood pressure, together with the amount withheld fluid increases and after prolonged exposure to the heart is stressed, which can lead to heart attack or brain damage.

Chloride ions are also part of the hydrochloric acid in the stomach, which provides certain processes during digestion, but further also ensures that other parts of the gastrointestinal tract not come microorganisms – provides it with a very low pH which can not withstand the bacteria wall. Itsdeficiency is manifested by vomiting, muscle spasms. It may also affect the formation of hydrochloric acid.

Lack of potassium cations initially manifests as tingling in the extremities, muscle weakness, tinnitus. Impairment may have an irregular heartbeat, have nausea and may vomit. Conversely, when an excess of potassium are generally confused and they can suffer through hallucinations.

As already mentioned, the calcium is present not only in the bone but also in the blood. Therefore, if it shortage is taken from the bones, which then have less flexibility and become brittle. This happens mostly in women after menopause, when these patients are known. Osteoporosis(thinning of the bones). May be odbírán but also from the teeth, which can then be released and more or deteriorate. Since missing only in the bone but also in the blood, where it is important for the precipitation after various injuries, it is also increased bleeding. Other symptoms are muscle cramps, increased brittleness nails and hair and herpes. Excess calcium in turn negatively affects the absorption of other elements, and contributes to faster aging.

Magnesium deficiency is manifested by increased fatigue, hair loss, frequent headaches, tremors, convulsions, palpitations. In excess, we meet with diarrhea and vomiting, and later with muscle cramps, difficulty breathing and decreased blood pressure and may cause dizziness.

Iron deficiency is probably the most common deficiency of elements in our environment. Since iron is part of hemoglobin, is the first direct sign of anemia (anemia), during which the patient may have symptoms such as shortness of breath (dyspnea), paleness, decreased appetite and weakness.Excess iron physiologically can not occur because the body has mechanisms to his excessive intake prevented. It is different but in people with congenital deficiency of these mechanisms and alcoholics. These people are gradually poisoning the iron – this is a very serious condition that needs to be addressed in a timely and professionally, because over time leads to the destruction of the liver, pancreas and heart. This surplus is then the most vulnerable children.

treatment with vitamin deficiencies

Deficiency of any element is usually treated his delivery in the form of pills and often changing eating habits. Sometimes your doctor may prescribe medications that increase the absorption něterého element.

Total unusual treatment in diseases where excess iron permanently. These patients occurs regularly transfusions when they odbráno about 400 ml of blood. They consider it for some time and complete the amount of iron in the body for a time they will fall.

How can I help myself?

The best advice is to think about your diet – how much is balanced, what would be appropriate to add to it, if not unilaterally oriented and which foods would be appropriate to add. It is also possible consultation with a nutritionist. But if there are persistent difficulties, it is advisable to visit a doctor.

complications vitamin deficiencies

For lack or excess of some elements can lead to severe damage to some organs (eg, heart, liver, pancreas). If the damage reaches a certain size, it is also possible organ failure and related complications.

Other names: Lack of trace elements

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