Description hydrocele, varicocele and spermatocele

Hydrocele, varicocele and spermatocele are exclusively male affair. All are located in the scrotum(scrotum). They are distinguished by a fluid stasis ** ** – semen, blood or peritoneal fluid.Individual diseases have quite the same symptoms.


It is a developmental defect that arose as a result of poor closure of the abdominal wall after the descent of the testis in males. During embryonic development are both testicles stored behind the abdominal cavity. At its lower edge is fixed but the neck, the other end is anchored at the base of the scrotum. During intrauterine development and growth of the testicle increases progressively and is shrinking ligament stripping down to the scrotum. During the actual descent then passes through an opening between abdominal muscles. Physiologically should close this loophole growth abdominal muscles. If the closing does not occur, this hole may eventually need to undergo intestinal loop or peritoneal fluid. If the hole gets into the intestinal loop, it goes through the same channel through which it was testis to the scrotum. This condition is called inguinal (inguinal) hernia and in young children is not uncommon. But it is necessary to solve it as soon as possible.

With proper descent inside the scrotum consists of vyklenující small part of the abdominal cavity. A small sheet of abdominal stays in the scrotum after the descent of the testis and physiological development at this little tube then converted. However, if the closure and conversion of the tubes does not occur, it penetrates into the liquid, which is located in the abdominal cavity (ie. Peritoneal fluid). Since the peritoneal fluid is constantly renewed in such a way that the fluid from the abdominal cavity and absorbed into it new receives content in a cup increases because no place to resorb. After some time, it is possible in the scrotum feel soft lumps – is called a hydrocele.Zooming tubes usually stops at a certain volume. But it is possible to increase to a much larger size, which may then cause problems with movements (scrotum more rubs the inner thigh and can scrape off).


Spermatocele is another defect that can be found only in boys or men of different ages. This is thecystic lesion to varlati. Testicle is paired female gonads, which can be found in the scrotum. It consists of a system of channels, which gradually extend and converge into one. In these channels ongoing creation and evolution of sperm, which are necessary for the fertilization of the egg and thus the production of offspring. Sperm first appear as round cells during their development gradually reach podlouhlejšího shape and also get flagellum, through which they can move to the egg. It also facilitates the penetration of the egg through the membranes. Gradually move in the channels until the epididymis, which is part of the testicle, which is located on its top. Only after about 74 days sperm matures, the system cut through the remaining channels to get them into the vas deferens (ductus deferens), which has only one each testicle. Ten leading up to the prostate gland, through which enters the urethra. When ejaculation sperm are then molded with the body.Ejaculate contains only the sperm cells but also proteins and fructose.

When spermatocele leads to the accumulation of sperm in the epididymis tubules. That sperm do not proceed further and the number of one point increases, occurs vyklenování wall of the channel in the epididymis. On one testicle, these spermatocele may occur and some can reach up to 1 cm. Its cause is not entirely known. Its role in the development of spermatocele probably plays and stress.


Varicocele is another defect which relates exclusively to men. In this case, the enlargement and congestion venous plexus that drain blood from the testis, epididymis and scrotum. These venous plexus are mainly for testicles. Each testicle has its vascular supply, and therefore only one-sided varicocele more. Frequently have occurred on the left side. When expanding venous plexus occurs at the same time to hemostasis and thus worse drain deoxygenated blood back into the bloodstream. Because blood to the testicle comes in it longer, testicle is warming, which may have anegative effect on fertility. Indeed spermatozoa for their development they need a cooler environment. Therefore also testes located outside the body where the temperature is lower.Because of congestion is also slowed testicular blood flow and impairs its vascular supply.

Risk factors hydrocele, varicocele and spermatocele

Hydrocele is a developmental defect and its presence or absence is not possible to influence practically nothing. The same is true for virtually spermatocele. Varicocele belongs to a certain extent also between vascular disease and vascular walls. Simultaneously, there are those diseases and elsewhere as varicose veins and hemorrhoids. Therefore, if the body of these structures occur, the risk that they appear as a varicocele. It is a disease for which hereditary predisposition.

Prevention hydrocele, varicocele and spermatocele

Of the three defects mentioned herein may be applied only preventive measure against varicocele.Venous stasis may in fact appear on other parts of the body – such as hemorrhoids, or in the form of so-called varicose veins, which occur most feet. Therefore, should the men who had the disease, get tested scrotum.

Treatment of hydrocele, varicocele and spermatocele

For proper treatment, it is first necessary to distinguish whether it is a hydrocele, varicocele, or spermatocele cancer. Because these formations in the scrotum on palpation quite similar, it is important to do further investigation. Diagnosis is usually determined by palpation and ultrasound.

Treatment is usually conservative case hydrocele and patients are typically monitored. However if this defect inconveniences, it is possible to suck the content hydrocele. Often, however, peritoneal fluid into the scrotum returns, and it is therefore necessary to repeat the procedure. Another treatment option is closing an opening in the abdomen into the scrotum, through which the fluid flows.

For varicocele it is also possible surgical procedure. For this, the affected veins are removed or interrupted. This can be done either by opening the patient classically or laparoscopically, when the abdominal wall only make small holes. It is usually chosen by a less invasive laparoscopic procedure that is tolerable for the patient. Another option is sclerotherapy, in which is incorporated into the affected veins special substance. It adheres to the walls of blood vessels and their contact with the vein as if glued.

Regarding spermatocele, treatment is practically the same as in hydrocele. The doctor would, however, before the accession to this Delete cyst had a patient neprve sent for examinationspermiogram. If it is determined that the victim does not have enough sperm and plans to start a family, it is not appropriate to use these cysts odtranit. When choosing artificial insemination may be such sperm injection removed and used for fertilization (ie. In vitro fertilization). The fertilized egg is then inserted into the mother’s uterus.

How to help treat hydrocele, varicocele and spermatocele

If the patient decides to surgery, it is appropriate that after avoid work which must engage the abdominal muscles, and to wear leaky elastic underwear. At the same time it should also be avoided infection, which would be wound up after the surgery possibly could get.

Complications of hydrocele, varicocele and spermatocele

Complications may be in the postoperative period typical symptoms such as bleeding, infection or impaired wound healing. After some time, also may have a recurrence of the disease and the need to undergo surgery again.

Other names: hydrocele, spermatocele, hydrocele, accumulation of sperm, blood stasis in the scrotum, testicle cyst

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