Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis

Description of ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis is a relatively rare disease of the colon. Most are long-term underlying disease, in which the typical AC waveform.

After the first onset of signs of disease, there is a period (referred to as remission) when the patient is without difficulty. This phase is, however, subsequently replaced by periods of relapse, it is again fully intestinal inflammation, manifested.

May occur rarely and severe, fulminant (Peracute), in which there is no alternation of remission and relapse, but this is only a single outbreak of the disease, but with more dramatic symptoms.

This disease is an inflammatory disease causing ulcers on the mucosa of the colon and rectum. In exceptional cases, it is located in the region of the end of the small intestine.

Usually begins disabilities rectum and spreads colon upwards.Sometimes confused with Crohn’s disease, but that (among other differences) may affect the entire section of the digestive tract.

This disease is more common in developed countries, thus often is ranked among civilization diseases. Most often it is first observed around the age of 20-40 yearsand then later, between 50-80 years, but it can also occur in young children. It is reported that women suffering from this disease more often than men.


Signs and symptoms of ulcerative colitis

Generally, the major symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, often with blood, pain in the anus, urge to defecate, which however is not accompanied by a satisfactory emptying andabdominal pain.

Other symptoms then are loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, weight loss and temperature rise.Diarrhea is when the disease very stubborn and sometimes occurs even at night. Stool can be more than 20 times per day.

More specifically, we could divide symptoms of intestinal and parenteral.

Intestinal symptoms depend on the location and severity of damage to the colon. The more severe and extensive intestinal damage, the more pronounced the symptoms.

When disability rectum, which is almost always present, is ill accosted by a frequent urge to stool.During defecation, which is accompanied by pain, but leaving only a small amount of stool, mixed with deep red blood or mucus.

If the affected portion of the left colon (descending colon, sigmoid loop, rectum) is still loose stools, but much bulkier. Abdominal pain tend to be much stronger and have to spasmodiccharacter. Even in this case often with blood, mucus and usually pus.

Extraintestinal symptoms may be the first symptoms of the disease should be noted, however, that they do not occur in all patients. They appear on both bodies which are close to the colon, but also to other distant parts of the body. Bodily areas that are seemingly unrelated to the disease, and yet also are experiencing impairment, eyes, joints and biliary tract, in which secondarily produced inflammation. There are also various sores and rashes.

Another display that may arise secondarily, on the basis of disease, dehydration due to nausea and fluid loss from diarrhea or vomiting. Dehydration is also reflected dryness of skin and mucous membranes, fatigue and in severe cases, disorientation.


Progress and classification of ulcerative colitis

In ulcerative colitis may be affected by the entire large intestine, or a portion, according to the affected areas ulcerative colitis further divided. If the entire colon is affected, we are talking about so-.: pancolitis.

If colon affected in the section from the rectum after liver bend, it is a subtotal form.

When damage to the rectum and colon, spleen to bend, it is a left-sided form.

Proktosigmoiditida is a situation where it is again affected part of the colon and rectum, called S-shaped loop.

The last type is proctitis, which affects only the rectum.

As already described above, the course of the disease is a typical alternating symptom-free period(remission) with the onset of the disease and its symptoms (relapse).

Disease usually occurs many years. If relapses occur several times a year, it is called .: remittingtype of disease. If the interval between relapses even several distance, then this kind of referred to as intermittent.

Sometimes the symptoms of the disease the patient constantly troubled throughout the year(chronic type) or a course of disease, but very short (Peracute), but very significant. However it must be noted that these two forms are very rare.

As if enough previous division, ulcerative colitis can still take place progressively when relapses prolong and worsen. The opposite is regressive type in which relapses gradually diminish and shorten. Middle way, then a stationary form, the intervals between remission and relapse remain about the same and regular.


Causes Ulcerative Colitis

Ulcerative colitis is another name may refer to as idiopathic colitis. Word idiopathic means that the reason why disease occurs is not completely known.

It is believed that in its development of several factors, such as heredity, stress, some infectiousagents, diet composition and mucosal disorder of the immune system.


Risk factors for ulcerative colitis

As the cause of the disease, or the risk factors are not fully clear. But one can say that a person suffering from mental stress tend to have a higher incidence of the disease.

According to some theories, he often suffers from people who have a diet much meat, eggs and chocolate.

A certain role is also played by familial occurrence.


Treatment of ulcerative colitis

If the ulcerative colitis uncomplicated course, carried out with additional treatment and pharmacological, which must adapt to the patient’s condition.

Complementary therapy is chosen in remission period and mainly consists in modifying dietary regimen and the overall strengthening of the organism. Diseases causing large losses of fluid and minerals that need to be supplemented.

Diet should include foods rather irritating. In this disease, it is recommended consumption low residue diet. Fiber, generally considered a healthy diet in this case is therefore inappropriate.

Important is proper drinking regime recommended especially carbonated mineral water. Served as additional medication, whose choice depends on the needs of the patient.

In periods of relapse, patients must be hospitalized and often food is served to him by gavage and infusions.

Pharmacologic therapy consists in administering drugs from groups aminosalicylates,corticosteroids, immunosuppressants and intestinal disinfectant.

The disease is often more severe, or occur complications. In these cases it is necessary surgical treatment, consisting in the removal of the entire colon, or the affected part and then creating a temporary or permanent, artificial, intestinal outlet (stoma).


How can I help myself

When the disease ulcerative colitis is necessary to cooperate with the doctor.
If you suffer from this disease, try to dietary measures. Fruits such as apples .: eat always peeled.Vegetables in the diet recommends limiting and consume it more heat-treated.

Absolutely inappropriate foods are high in fiber such as legumes needed. Among the pastries rather choose white, wholemeal fact contains large amounts of indigestible residues. Avoid milk, yeast and chocolate products. Do not eat irritant, spicy foods and instant food. Animal fats better replace the plant. Divide food into smaller portions and eat several times a day.

The important role played drinks. Choose non-carbonated mineral water, weak tea and heavily diluted fruit juice. Unsuitable are sodas, coffee and energy drinks.

The course of the disease adversely affects stress. Find therefore enough time to relax and avoid emotionally challenging situations. Suitable is also a spa treatment.


Complications of ulcerative colitis

A serious complication of the disease can result in toxic megacolon. This is a condition where the colon loses its ability to move chyme, which starts to accumulate and subsequently expand intestine. The accumulated digesta contained various toxic microbes that may be attenuated through the intestinal wall near cause inflammation or connections in the bloodstream and cause an overallsepsis.

If there directly to intestinal perforation, its contents emptied into the abdominal cavity and does come to peritonitis and a large hemorrhage.

In ulcerative colitis danger of malignant transformation that occurs especially in long pancolitis.

Another serious complication is massive bleeding from the rectum and the creation of dysplastic lesions.

Other Names: ulcerative colitis, ulcerative colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, colitis, proctocolitis, idiopathic inflammation of the rectum and colon, ulcerative colitis

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