Tuberculosis


Tuberculosis

Description tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease transmitted thus contact with an infected person. It is a disease most commonly affecting our lungs, kidneys or brain also packages and even bone.Basically but it can attack any part of the human body.

Tuberculosis, abbreviated as TB, colloquially referred to assouchotě. The disease usually manifests itself in the form of tuberculous nodes in the affected tissues. Accompanying symptoms of TB differs according to the form of this disease.

TB is the most common form of pulmonary tuberculosis. It manifested as inflammation of the lung tissue. Affected tissue subject to decay and their locations form a cavity.

The disease is associated with the total exhaustion of the organism, which is caused by swelling of the lymph nodes,fever and compulsive irritating cough, which may be an expectorant and blood. Now Coughing up blood is very dangerous, coughing in it is a significant amount of bacteria, which greatly increases the risk of further infection. In the course of the disease also occurs a decrease in body weight.

For other forms of tuberculosis are conditional expressions specific disabilities. Some forms of TB can cause meningitis, kidney or bone. After pulmonary tuberculosis, which accounts for 80% of cases, is the second most common form of tuberculosis of peripheral lymph nodes.

Tuberculosis was in developed countries due to vaccination, hygiene and effective antibiotics successfully suppressed to a minimum. Big problems but they operate in developing countries.Tuberculosis holds second place among the world’s deaths from infectious diseases (HIV immediately after). Unfortunately, lately we can observe a sharp rise in this disease not only in developing but also in developed countries. It is caused mainly emergence of new strains of bacteria that are resistant to drugs previously used. Unfortunately for us, the tuberculosis bacillus can survive in the body for many years before they take effect.

Some other forms of TB:

Tuberculosis of skin and subcutaneous tissue

tubercular inflammation of the spine

intestinal tuberculosis

genitourinary tuberculosis

miliary tuberculosis

 

Cause and risk factors for tuberculosis

The cause of tuberculosis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis hominis called. Koch’s bacillus.

Tuberculosis is a highly contagious disease that is transmitted by direct contact, contact with sick or via droplets that apart from getting sick when coughing, sneezing or even the actual interview.

TB is therefore transmitted through the air. The good news is that the infecting enough short-term contact with the source of infection. It needs to be in contact with the patient at least four hours, otherwise the tubercle bacilli get into our body. Prolonged contact with patients is the risk grows.Therefore, it is very unlikely that you are infected with TB in the metro, tram or train. According to recent research, the bacteria are resistant TB so that dry areas will last for several days.

Adolescents and adults with healthy immune systems should not get sick even after direct contact with the infection. Their body has had enough substance preventing the emergence of disease.

The risk groups include the homeless and drug addicts especially, who make up over 20% vectors.

An important factor influencing the infectiousness of the proper treatment. Sick with pulmonary TB ceases to be contagious in a very short time. In the event that it adheres to proper treatment, usually within two weeks longer be infectious for surroundings.

 

Signs and symptoms of tuberculosis

Since the most common form of TB affects the lungs and form about 80% of cases are the most common symptoms include cough in particular, which is sometimes associated with theexpectoration of blood. Cough is dry, irritating and should also last longer than three weeks.Coughing up blood is common, particularly in the later stages of the disease.

Another symptom may be uncomfortable chest pain, which may be caused by fatigue intercostal muscles. Other symptoms include dyspnea, fever and fever, and sweating increasingly. The latter manifests itself especially at night. Fevers are called. Febris inversa, which means that the temperatures are higher in the morning and evening lower.

The patient also struggling with poor appetite or rather a loss of appetite. Patients with tuberculosis is often observed reductions in body weight, which is also without a clear reason.

Sick experiencing malaise and constantly feeling tired. Unfortunately TBC sometimes occurs during the initial stages without symptoms, which makes early diagnosis of disease.

 

treatment of tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a disease caused by mycobacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosa), named after its discoverer Koch’s bacillus. Treatment is therefore formed antibiotics active against this bacterium.These antibiotics are known antitubercular and combines them always a few. The purpose of these combinations is to prevent drug resistance.

The best precondition for a successful cure is early diagnosis. The doctor diagnosed determined based on chest x-rays, skin tests and analysis of saliva.

Very important is the tuberculin test. Tuberculin protein is using the detection of TB, but its use is in the form of vaccination against this disease is in fact contained in the vaccine against tuberculosis known. BCG vaccine.

Treatment of tuberculosis is divided into several stages and depends on the condition of the patient.Also depends on the possible accompanying diseases. According to the condition of the patient is selected by appropriate antibiotic and treatment can begin. Treatment usually consists of several weeks of intensive treatment, followed by several weeks again called. Continuation therapy.

Treatment of tuberculosis is a long-term affair. The specific duration of treatment is dependent on extent of disease in the patient. It is true that a complete cure should be at least six to nine months of treatment. The goal of treatment is to relieve the patient as much bacteria.

Tuberculosis is among curable disease. Success of treatment lies in particular in its unconditional compliance and management guidance to physicians. Untreated tuberculosis can end in death. And watch old tuberculosis does not mean that you are against this disease in the future immune.

 

prevention of tuberculosis

The Czech Republic is the primary method of prevention vaccination. Vaccination is mandatory and is required by law. Vaccination is the BCG vaccine. Vaccination has been underway in newbornsand later around the age of twelve years.

Vaccination involves injection of the vaccine into the arm. Tuberculin skin test is investigated the effectiveness of our vaccination. The test is performed by injecting tuberculin to his forearm and inspections after two days. For successfully vaccinated individuals appears to tuberculin reaction in the form of a temporary swelling at the injection site. If the reaction fails, the individual booster.

The main purpose of vaccination is to prevent deadly form of tuberculosis. And thus to the emergence of miliary tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis. The former consists of extending the Koch’s bacillus by the blood throughout the body infected.

An important factor in prevention is also trying not to come into contact with an infected person.Which is quite possible, because such a person on the street hardly know. But it is not so important.More important is to avoid prolonged contact with the patient. Long-term exposure implies a risk of contagion, therefore it is ill treated in an isolated environment in the hospital.

Among other forms of prevention include adherence to basic hygiene habits and health policies.

Prevention rules are very especially important to prevent the occurrence of disease.

Part of the prevention and timely visit to the doctor when noticing symptoms of TB. Especially when we see each other persistent cough, temperature and fatigue.

Protituberkulózním national prevention program is finding sources of infection and preventing its spread through treatment. The cornerstone of this program is primarily investigating groups that are more likely to develop this disease. Such risk group includes people from around the patients (family, friends, co-workers). Furthermore, the people are sick from certain diseases (diabetes, AIDS) and people taking medications that reduce immunity against TB. The highest risk population groups include people from socially disadvantaged groups. Thus, especially the homeless and drug addicts, who represent about 20% of cases of infection by this disease.

For health care professionals is an important measure to wear masks or respirators when in contact with patients during their treatment.

In previous arrangements activate bacteria already present in the body, ie in cases of latent infection, has proven antibiotics. Administration of antibiotics is also important in case of reduction of natural human immunity, especially if a person is suffering from HIV or the chronically ill.Antibiotic therapy should receive all the people who came into contact with the patient.

Indispensable disease prevention is a good diet, frequent exercise in the open air, and especially good hygiene.

 

How can I help myself

One patient with TB must first adhere to proper treatment, but it is appropriate to take further action. Sick man in any case can not afford to neglect the normal rules of hygiene. Even if it should follow increasingly.

Basically Avoid couching without covered his mouth, only to spit into a tissue or a spittoon. An important part of the therapeutic measures is that the patient was eating and hygiene items for himself.

A sick person should avoid contact with healthy people. This is especially true in the early stages of the disease, when there is the possibility of disease transmission. Therefore, it is important that the patient said all the people with whom he was in contact. These persons must be urgently investigated, their health status is subject to scrutiny and they undergo preventive treatment with antibiotics. Children tend to be safe again inoculated. Thus, the patient can alone prevent the further spread of infection and protect your loved ones.

Symptoms similar to tuberculosis may have

bronchial asthma

pneumonia

sarcoidosis

Leprosy

Syphilis
)

complications of tuberculosis

exudative pleuritis

spontaneous pneumothorax

Other names: TB tubera, souchotě, tuberculosis, wasting, tuberculosis

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