Toxoplasmosis


Toxoplasmosis

Description toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common forms of parasitic infection, since in latent form appears in up to one third of the human population. Annually in the Czech Republic reported 400-800 cases of acute toxoplasmosis and about 90 cases of children infected by congenital toxoplasmosis.

For immunocompetent persons (persons with sufficient immunity) was toxoplasmosis occurs as a lifelong latent infection. In this case, a person not suffering from any symptoms of infection, and it does not restrict.

More serious complications occur in immunocompromised individuals (people with weakened immunity) and transplacental transmission of infection from mother to fetus during pregnancy.

The originator of this infectious disease is a protozoanToxoplasma gondii, coccidia, which belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. In the life cycle of Toxoplasma there are three stages, stage bradyzoites, and tachyzoites sporozoites.Bradyzoité represent the resting form of Toxoplasma that occur in tissue cysts during latent infection.
Tachyzoité are characterized as rapidly multiplying mold active organism acute infection or reactivation of latent infection. And finally constitute the sporozoitestage, which originated in sexually definitive host (organism cats or other felines), which are excreted in the form of so-called. Oocysts into the environment.

Toxoplasma gondii is able to infect substantially all warm-blooded vertebrates. The definitive host of this parasite is mostly domestic cat or other felines. Intermediate hosts are mainly their victims, small rodents. Intermediate hosts in the group but we can also include the human and economic animals farmed for meat or milk (cattle, sheep, goats, rabbits, chickens etc.).

Toxoplasma is able to sexually propagate only in the feline body (particularly in the gut cats) and subsequently excreted from the body via the faeces. The cat may be infected only once in a lifetime and the period for which excludes oocyst sporozoites, is estimated to be several weeks (at this time, cats often suffer from diarrhea).

Oocysts in the external environment to mature and is called. Sporulation. At this point it becomes infectious and dangerous to other animals. Oocysts contaminate its surroundings, e.g. soil, water, plants, and upon contact or ingestion of contaminated components undergo infection of other organisms.

For other animals occurs only in the form of latent tissue cysts (containing bradyzoites), which are found in particular in muscle tissue and in various organs (e.g. brain, liver, heart, etc.). Tachyzoité in organisms occur only for a short period immediately after infection with Toxoplasma and persist until the infection reaches the latent form.

A person can come to infection in three ways. Either by direct contact with infectious oocysts, eg. When cleaning the cat litter tray, when working with soil, when playing on turf, while consumption of raw contaminated vegetables or water (infection in this way is not very busy), or by eating raw or undercooked processed meat containing tissue cysts (the greatest risk of infection is a rabbit and sheep meat, pig meat is less risk of infection).

The infection with toxoplasmosis can occur during pregnancy when the infection is transferred to the placenta from mother to fetus. Rarely can transfer toxoplasmosis example transfusions of infected blood or transplants.

 

Risk factors for toxoplasmosis

With Toxoplasmosis can mess if you really neočistíte fruits and vegetables, for exampleneomyjete hands after working with soil or after contact with a cat or after handling potentially contaminated objects (cat záchůdek etc.).

Risk factor may be traveling to tropical and subtropical areas where toxoplasma often occurs.

There are cases when a person infected with toxoplasmosis during blood transfusion or organ transplantation. These cases are really rare.

 

Preventing toxoplasmosis

Preventive measures should be observed by all, but especially pregnant women and immunodeficient persons would be special attention.

People should pay attention to the possibility of infection with oocysts that are excreted by cats. We pay attention especially to careful washing of fruits and vegetables.

After working in the garden, after handling raw meat and after contact with cats, always wash hands properly. It is necessary to reduce the handling of materials which may be potentially contaminated by cat feces or during their handling, the use of protective gloves.

Furthermore, it is necessary to regularly disinfect cat záchůdek hot water for at least five minutes and not feed cats raw meat. Foods that are going to consume, protect against flies, cockroaches and other insects.

Preventive measures should be taken into consideration when contact with the meat, eggs and milk.Meat sufficiently heat treated (at temperatures higher than 70 ° C). When handling raw meat we never do not touch your mouth and eyes and after work, always wash your hands carefully. It is also necessary to regularly clean surfaces that were used in the processing of raw meat. Eggs always enough to simmer. We consume only pasteurized milk and welded.

Pregnant women should guard against toxoplasmosis the more the infection is not transferred to her fetus. It is recommended to undergo at least once at the beginning of pregnancy tests for toxoplasmosis. In the fetus, the possibility of infection detected by ultrasound, amniocentesis (amniocentesis) or fetal blood serology.

 

Signs and symptoms of toxoplasmosis

The form, condition, symptoms and treatment decisions human immune status.

Immunocompetent persons (persons with sufficiently strong immunity) suffers usually lifelong latent form of toxoplasmosis at which the body forms a so-called. Tissue cysts with bradyzoites. In this case, one does not notice any particular symptom and the variant human infection not limiting.

In immunodeficient persons (persons immunocompromised) may influence this infection cause serious complications.

Toxoplasmosis can be divided into two groups according to the period in which the body is infected.We divide it into toxoplasmosis acquired and congenital.

The resulting toxoplasmosis in man occurs after the birth, as a lifelong latent infection which is up to 95% percent of affected has no symptoms. The incubation period lasts one to three weeks.

When called. Primary infection (toxoplasmosis penetration into the body) appears so. Acute nodular form when a person feels tired and lethargic, suffer from headache, muscle pain and when slightly zduřují lymph nodes, particularly nodes of the submandibular and neck.

However, it may cause reactivation of latent forms (conversion standstill to acute condition), especially in immunodepression (cytostatic or immunosuppressive therapy and in HIV infection). In this situation breaks infection, tissue cysts with bradyzoites bursts and subsequently released tachyzoité surroundings. This reactivation is most often manifested as so called. Cerebral toxoplasmosis, which leads to degeneration of the cells of the central nervous system, which results in headaches, paresis, convulsions and impaired consciousness. Another body, which may occur in jeopardy, is the heart.

Congenital toxoplasmosis causes especially severe damage to the fetus. The extent of damage depends on the stage of pregnancy, serious complications occur in the first trimester of pregnancy.Symptoms of infection usually appears immediately after birth (may be diagnosed hydrocephalus,chorioretinitis or calcification of the brain). More often, however, they may appear in the neonatal period or junior level and show, for example, chorioretinitis, strabismus (šilháním), deafness,mental retardation or epilepsy.

Ocular toxoplasmosis.

 

treatment of toxoplasmosis

Treatment is indicated only in pregnant women, children with congenital toxoplasmosis-infected children under five years of age, immunodeficient persons and in cases of ocular toxoplasmosis.

Nodular form of infection in immunocompetent individuals who have no symptoms, does not cure particularly because the infection will eventually goes into a latent form.

When medical therapy is most commonly used combinations reliable matter- pyrimetaninu andsulfadiazine. Because these substances can have a negative effect on the process of hematopoiesis, and is used more as a protective factor, folic acid. This combination of drugs is really very effective, as evidenced for example by the fact that up to 90% reduces the risk of transmission of infection to the fetus during pregnancy.

This treatment therapies act only upon tachyzoidy stimulates acute infection to transition into a latent form and alleviates the damage range (and hence, for example the infection during pregnancy, abortion is not needed).

It’s really very important that the treatment of acute or congenital toxoplasmosis treated in time. If e.g. cerebral toxoplasmosis remained untreated or was treated with the wrong result would certainly be the death of the patient.

 

How can I help myself

If you know that you are wearing a latent form of toxoplasmosis, do not induce panic, your immune system with this infection has tackled alone and you do not even notice anything.

If your immunity is weakened, eat lots of fruits and vegetables, you can also take vitamins in the form of tablets, follow a healthy diet, plenty of rest, do not overextend yourself, explore some physical activity and avoid stress and mentally exhausting conditions.

 

complications toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis can cause complications if they attack immunodeficient persons who are unable to adequately defend its effects.

This infection is insidious in that it can pass the placenta to the fetus and that the fault may carry serious consequences.

Other names: morbus Jank, Toxoplasmic gondii infection

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