Testicular tumors


Testicular tumors

Description of testicular cancer

The term cancer should be reserved for malignant tumors of epithelial cells – cancer. The general public sees cancer as a disease all tumor origin. Generally, the testes may be affected by a variety of tumors, which differ from each origin (from which the cells originated), the degree of differentiation, biological behavior etc. A similar problem is found also in problems of ovarian tumors.

Large group of testicular cancer tumors from forming germ cells– called. Germ cell tumors. Each year in the Czech Republic about 400 diagnosed cases of the disease germ cell tumors.

World Health Organization (WHO) divides tumors into several groups: the main groups are the already mentioned germ cell tumors, further gonadostromální tumors, as well as various tumors (carcinoid), lymphomas and testicular plasmacytomaetc.

 

Risk factors for testicular cancer

The main risk factor is undescended testicle. Testicle remains in the abdominal cavity and does not descend into the scrotum. This phenomenon is called cryptorchidism.

In diagnosing testicular (testis – testis) tumor in 1-2% of men, a tumor on the other side. This figure represents a 500 fold increase in incidence compared to healthy male population.

 

Prevention of testicular cancer

There is no specific prevention.

 

Signs and symptoms of testicular cancer

Testicular tumors manifest themselves, so that the formation of the solid intumescence testis.This is a basic symptom.

When disability peritoneum leads to severe pain in the lower back.

Furthermore, this fault elimination (when oppression ureters leads to reduced amounts of urine – -oliguria) or bowel disorders.

When disability in the thoracic cavity, it can be coughing, wheezing like.

May develop gynecomastia, an increase of breasts in men, as tumor cells can produce beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin, which stimulates breast growth.

 

A description of each type of testicular tumors

Gravity of cancer issue lies in the study and treatment of germ cell tumors. The reason is that germ cell tumors account for 90% of all testicular tumors. The second reason is that the majority of germinal tumors are malignant tumors.

The most common type of germ cell tumor is called. Seminoma. Seminoma of the testis represents about 50% of all germ cell tumors. They discovered that germ cell tumors have a common precursor (i.e. cells that are based). This precursor is called. IGCNU (Intratubular germ cell neoplasia type of non – intratubular germ cell neoplasia of unclassified type).

The basic form of seminoma seminoma is a classic. Classical seminoma may have two variants: seminoma with high mitotic turnover and trophoblasts seminoma. Seminoma occurs almost exclusively in adulthood, when incidence is highest among men aged around 40 years. Another fact is that its incidence is rising. Tumor mainly reflects magnification of testis. Testicle may be up to many times higher. The tumor affects the whole testicle, time grows only there, later grows into the epididymis and scrotum.

Spermatocytární seminoma is a separate unit because many features different from classical seminoma. Never occur outside of testis. In this tumor is not IGCNU precursor. Another specific spermatocytárního seminoma is that it can affect even the second testicle. This affects up seminoma older man (about 55 years).

Neseminomová group germ cell tumors consists mainly of embryonic carcinoma, yolk sac tumor(yolk sac tumor) and choriocarcinoma group called. Teratomas.

 

Treatment of testicular cancer

Great importance in the treatment of testicular tumors with malignant behavior such as surgery.Carried out with removal of the testis (ie. Orchiectomy), which is carried inguinal approach. This performance has both diagnostic and therapeutic value. It is used in all stages of testicular tumors.The removed testicle becomes a source of samples for histopathological examination, which significantly refines and closed a definitive diagnosis.

Removal (dissection) nodes under the abdominal cavity is a common treatment for early neseminomových tumors. The problem is that this treatment is burdened with complications such aserectile dysfunction and ejaculation. For these reasons, this treatment leaves and is replaced bychemotherapy or tactics intense monitoring.

Radiotherapy (radiation) is used for seminoma as postoperative irradiation of pelvic lymph nodes and lymph nodes around the aorta. The maximum dose of 25 Gy. Even if there are enlarged lymph nodes under the abdominal cavity (retroperitoneum), increases the total dose of 35 Gy.

Chemotherapy, which was introduced into the treatment of seminomas, marked a major breakthrough. It is used with cisplatin therapy, etc.

The prognosis has improved significantly the introduction of cisplatin into medical practice. Even the forms that have spread into the body, the chances of permanent cure up to 75% of patients.Chances of survival are reduced by the presence of adverse prognostic factors, which are poorly differentiated tumors (worse prognosis is the presence of embryonal carcinoma).

 

How can I help myself

Oncological diseases is virtually unaffected by yourself. Generally stick to the principle behavior of the patient (bed rest, no stress, etc.). This is a subjective feeling of relief, rather than a direct effect on the disease.

Other Names: testicular tumor, testicular cancer, testicular cancer, benign testicular tumor, malignant tumor, testicular germ cell tumors, seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, choriocarcinoma, teratoma

Keywords: germ cell tumors

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