Syphilis


Syphilis

Description disease Syphilis

This disease or its symptoms, inimitably portrayed in the film Peter Čepek Kerosene lamps.

It is an infectious sexually transmitted disease caused by thebacterium Treponema pallidum. Man is the only host of this bacterium.

Transmission is most often through sexual contact, transmission is rare contaminated objects. Most often it occurs in people between 15 and 30 years.

It affects various organs, skin, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal support and central nervous system.

For the disease in untreated form are typically three stages, the last of which produced serious damage to the body that are irreversible and can lead to death.

The disease is transmitted from mother to fetus. In the event that this happens, there is a newborn mnohaorgánovému damage that often ends in death or serious leaves lasting consequences.

The disease was severe, especially in the era before the introduction of antibiotics, when syphilis was present in about 10% of the population. Nowadays, this problem can be rather only in developing countries with a lack of medical care. In developed countries successfully treated with antibiotics (penicillin), so the only hardship for untold is that the disease has not been overlooked and in time began to heal.

Syphilis is subject to mandatory reporting, this means that if a doctor patient disease appears, is obliged to disclose this information to the local sanitary station, which then participates in finding all of the patient’s sexual contacts, which must be tested for this disease.

 

Causes of syphilis

The disease arises after penetration of bacteria into the body, which occurs after disruption of the skin surface or mucous membrane. This occurs most frequently in the mouth or on the genitals.

On the site, through which enters the body, it begins to multiply and gives rise to a symptom, typical of the first stage of syphilis. At this point the formation of the hard ulcer (ulcus durum),which is painless. Furthermore, the infection spreads in blood and lymph vessels and affects the lymph nodes and other organs. According to the disability of individual organs, then there are other manifestations of the disease.

Most often the infection occurs during sexual intercourse with an infected person (the infection occurs in about 1/3 of the people). It is also possible transmission from mother to fetus during penetration of bacteria palcentou (placental transfer). Earlier also there was a risk of transmission during blood transfusions, which is now almost impossible but, with detailed analyzes of blood donors. Transfer contaminated objects is also rather theoretical, since Treponema pallidum is highly sensitive to any external influences and outside the host dies very quickly.

 

Risk factors for syphilis

Risk factors are especially unprotected sex, especially with casual partner, as well as frequent changes of sexual partners and related prostitution.

Also included drug addiction, which could theoretically lead to infection infected needle and mainly for drug addiction include in most cases irresponsible behavior which facilitates the formation of the above mentioned risk factors.

 

prevention of syphilis

Prevention is first and foremost, to avoid risk factors. Further, as for the prevention of formation of congenital syphilis, is nowadays compulsory examination of the mother at the beginning of pregnancy, which is performed on the collected blood, which is responsible for most of the gynecologist.

What is needed to emphasize is that if you find yourself with symptoms, you should immediately when the first signs your doctor immediately. This may be for many certainly annoying, it is a matter of intimate (and sometimes additionally obtained accidental contact), but need to realize that, when left untreated leads to disease progression that may be ultimately fatal. Furthermore, it is of course one source of infection for their environment (sexual partner / partners).

Finally, treatment of syphilis in the initial stage is very simple, in contrast to the other stages, which may cause irreversible changes already doctors are not able to correct.

 

Signs and symptoms of syphilis

The disease manifests itself in three stages, each of which has certain specifics. The most important are the warning signs in the first phase, which should put us get to see a doctor.

In the first phase, in about three weeks (range is from 9-90 days) after intercourse occurs at the point of entry of infection hard painless ulcer (ulcus durum), the size usually up to 2 cm, from which when pressed flows a clear liquid. Its formation precedes the occurrence of red or reddish-bounded rashes, protruding above the surface, at which ulceration occurs. It is usually on the genitals or in the mouth or around the anus.

However, there are a number of alternative expressions that may not be so clear and so it is good to know about them. The mucous membranes instead of conventional ulcer may arise not prominent abrasion that may escape attention. In women, the place where the ulcer (but simultaneously with it) cause swelling of the labia majora (the labia majora) in men similarly foreskin. Ulcers may also exist multiple.

Also, it can be a painful ulcer. If the penetration of bacteria through the mucosa of the urethra, is hidden ulcer and is then reflected as a spout.

During the next two weeks after formation of the ulcer followed by enlargement of the lymph nodes, in case of genital ulcer are nodes in the groin. They tend enlarged only on one side.

In the second phase, which starts mostly 9 weeks after infection (3 to 12 week) on the body rashappears. It often concerned not recorded, but it is often accompanied by total “flu-like” symptoms, thus overall tiredness, headache, muscle and joint pain, fever, or painless enlargement of lymph node).

It may still persist ulcer or scar after the healing and regularly are still enlarged lymph nodes in locations where their increase occurred after the appearance of an ulcer.

The rash can be very different in nature, usually is bounded and itch (maculosa syphilis, roseola also syphilitica). It may occur at various places of the body, often to the sides of the torso and abdomen, legs at the most in the bend.

But again, there are very diverse variants of cutaneous manifestations, different their symptoms.Instead rashes may appear shiny reddish pimples that are on the face, palms and soles and time are experiencing skin exfoliation (syphilis papulosa and papulosquamosa). Unpleasant variant is Syphilis condylomatosa at which the skin constitutes oozy pimples, especially in places where there is a risk of red marking.

In the aftermath of eruptions often happens that after her stay in places of the original occurrence of red or dark colored spots. If you develop a rash occurs in hair blanket may subsequently lead to hair loss.

Furthermore, there are signs of the mucous membranes, which are seen in 1/3 patients. These could be redness of the oral cavity, throat infection, which is often accompanied by hoarseness, or may appear so. Syphilitic angina, which are affected storey nodes, which accompanies their redness later with plaque formation and difficult, painful swallowing.

These more specific symptoms added yet nonspecific, such as temperature, fatigue, anorexia, pain in joints and muscles.

After about two years, the disease goes into a hidden stage (latent syphilis), which usually leads to resolution of symptoms and the person ceases to be infectious. In one third of cases occur after the formation of the tertiary stage of syphilis.

It develops over 3-7 years from the secondary stage. When it occurs the formation of so-called.Gummi, which are subject to immunological reactions to the bacteria that the body can not destroy.There is then the fact that the immune cells are wrapped and sealed to itself at the point where to come into contact. Gummy then can occur on skin and mucous membranes, but also in the institutions.

They are rigid nodes that can by location impair organ function. Is affected tongue, hard and soft palate, the nose, which leads to their destruction. Furthermore often affected joints and bones, liver and other organs. There is risk of impairment of blood vessels, particularly the aorta and coronary vessels, on which there is necrosis of the walls with the risk of aneurysms (aneurysms). Arises also damage the heart valves.

Very specific disabilities for syphilis is central nervous system damage (ie. Neurosyphilis) that starts after 5 to 35 years after infection. It may manifest as disability soft diapers brain which then generates meningeal symptoms, as may occur emergence stroke.

And to make matters worse, 15 – 20 years after the development of the secondary phase of the risk of developing parenchymal syphilis, which occurs in connection with impaired immunity. You can have two different speeches. First, it’s called. Paralysis progressiva, one characterized bypsychiatric symptoms (changes in behavior, personality, also deepening dementia) andneurological symptoms, which leads to 3 years to total paralysis and death.

The second parenchymal manifestation of syphilis is called. Tabes dorsalis, in which the spinal cord. Then retires to the emergence of shooting pains in the back, disturbances of sensation,gait and balance, and ultimately leads to severe disability in.

As seen from the above, this disease their symptoms very diverse, and the whole process takes a very long time, anyway untreated ends very tragically, at best, permanent disability and death at worst.

A special case is a form of congenital syphilis, which leads to infection of the fetus from the mother, which usually entails congenital defects in the fetus, treatable only in certain cases.

 

treatment of syphilis

Since the introduction of penicillin (antibiotic) became the gold standard in the treatment of syphilis. To this day, it thankfully none of bacterial resistance and therefore still used for successful treatment. He served in all three stages.

Most often injected into muscle and therapy for the first and the second phase lasts about 14 days.In the case of concealed syphilis treatment lasts penicillin three weeks.
Neurosyphilis usually treated with 10 days to a month.

All people who have had the infection Traponemou pallidum after zaléčení are continuouslymonitored by a doctor. The deadlines performs blood tests, which is determined by the possible presence of bacteria and antibodies against it.
In the first six months, checks are carried out once every 1-2 months, in the second half of the year twice. The second year it is necessary to control examinations take place twice.

In the event that, after all these examinations finding negative and negative findings in clinical examination, when doing radiography the heart and lungs, echocardiography aortic examination neurological, psychiatric and ocular and cerebrospinal fluid, one can be removed from the recordsof patients with this disease. Otherwise one is regularly monitored and investigated every 5 years following 20 years.

Patients who have developed the tertiary stage and in patients with congenital syphilis from the records do not exclude ever.

 

complications of syphilis

Complications are primarily development of secondary or tertiary phase of the disease which can have tragic consequences and lead to death, as already mentioned above.

Additionally here can include infection of the mother who herself suffers from syphilis. This can have very serious consequences of the fetus, which may end in miscarriage, secondly stillborn fetus and, secondly, the birth of a child to leave a very serious permanent damage.

Other names: syphilis, syphilis, syphilis

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