Staphylococcal intoxication


Staphylococcal intoxication

Description of staphylococcal poisoning

Staphylococcal enterotoxicosis, or food poisoning, is a typical problem the summer months. Bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) enrichment in food, produces a toxin which is capable during several minutes to hours after ingestion of infected food cause acute problems.

Epidemic of poisonings occur in the Czech Republic, mostly in school canteens, schools in nature,and to boot camp, but also among visitors delis, cafeterias, confectioneries and ice cream shops.

Risk factors stafylkokové poisoning

Staphylococcus aureus is a common bacterium found all around us, it is part of the microflora in the oral and nasal cavities up to 40% of people. It is also the most common cause of minor skin wounds fester. Furthermore, also it causes abscesses hair follicles, nails, bone marrow, breast cancer, pneumonia, and abscesses also creates (bearings hnisaného inflammation) anywhere in the body.

The bacteria is highly resistant to survive in cold environments, and to die at temperatures above 60 ° C.

MRSA is able to produce large amounts of toxins, must be known toxin that causes toxic shock syndrome, which can occur with severe infection. Some types of bacteria produce a toxin calledthermostable enterotoxin. The term thermostable means that it is resistant to teplu- neutralize it can be up to more than 30 minutes of boiling. People tend to its effects are very sensitive to poisoning sufficient small amount of the poison (effects have been observed at 4 mg has swallowed poison kg).

The source of infection is usually a man with a festering wound on the skin that comes in contact with food. Precious source of infection but can also be milk from cows not treated with purulent inflammation of the udder.

The infected bacteria diet is strongly propagated and produces large amounts of toxins. The most dangerous foods in terms of bacterial contamination are: meat and sausages, milk * and * dairy products (cheese, cream, whipped cream, custard, cream cakes, condensed milk) and mayonnaise.To the growth of bacteria can also occur in previously safe food that has been contaminated secondarily, through contact with another infected food.

Prevention of staphylococcal intoxication

The poisoning prevention is important strict adherence to hygiene measures when handling food. It is, first of preventive measures which involve the training of workers in the food industry, and also the respect of procedures for the preparation, transportation and storage of food.

Food must be stored at the temperature prevailing in the refrigerator (4C), or vice versa, at a temperature higher than 60 degrees. It is also important to limit direct contact with food to a minimum. For workers in food processing are performed regularly and for infections of the skin are temporarily excluded from direct work with food.

The most important remains thorough cooking of food, which can liquidate and toxin has been found in food.

After the outbreak of staphylococcal poisoning, it is necessary to adhere to certain repressive measures. Family doctor, who caught the infection in patients, is obliged to report it hygienist for the catchment area. Subsequently, we identify a common source of infection, thus contaminated food which consumed all affected, and are collected from the sample. The samples were also taken from stool and vomit afflicted, and shall examine all persons involved in the preparation of the dish.

Symptoms of staphylococcal intoxication

After the consumption of food containing staphylococcal enterotoxin, the first symptoms appear on average for 1-6 hours.

Venom stimulates the nervous system in the intestine through which there is irritation of the vomiting center in the brain, causing possible loss of appetite, increased salivation, nausea and vomiting. Irritating also nerve endings in the intestinal mucosa, and thus causes pain and cramping, accelerating peristalsis and diarrhea. Stool is watery, mucus can contain, but in any case not with blood. All these symptoms occur very fast reaction to poisoning is usually violent and sudden. There is a loss of fluid which can exhibit a drop in blood pressure. This will show the heart to beat faster, sometimes headaches, and increased fatigue and sleepiness.

Body temperature is in itself staphylococcal intoxication nezvyšuje- is an important symptom by which this can be distinguished from poisoning more serious intestinal infections. But sometimes foods may be contaminated with other bacteria, which can cause the body and the onset of fever.

Although it is the onset and progress of the overall poisoning very dramatic, symptoms usually subside within 24 hours and is almost never required hospitalization. Usually the victim the next day just fine, without any further problems.

treatment of diseases

Enterotoxicosis staphylococcal therapy relies primarily on timely rehydration of the patient.Usually enough to drink large amounts of fluids (3-4 liters per day) prefer the unsweetened tea and mineral water. Only rarely, mostly in elderly people suffering from serious illnesses vícerými, and for small children, who are generally more sensitive to loss of fluid could come into consideration the need for hospitalization. Isolation wards intravenously administered rehydration solutions and treated as any other complications.

The patient has to remain on bed rest, especially on the first day, but it is forbidden greater physical exertion for at least another two days after the poisoning.

It is recommended that an organism in the earliest days of the heavy burden the diet, diet foodsare allowed like fairy cakes, rice porridge without milk content of dry bread.

How do I help myself

In the case of staphylococcal toxin poisoning it is particularly recommended to drink a lot.Poisoning from food consumed in public catering equipment is required to report infections to the district doctor, who then makes other measures to limit its spread.

All skin lesions, even the seemingly small and insignificant, must be properly treated, cleaned, disinfected and hide that in any case does not come into contact with food.

For diarrhea is not recommended to take any drugs that cause thickening of the stool (constipating).For rapid resolution of symptoms it is necessary as soon as possible to exclude toxin from the body.When using protiprůjmových drug would occur only to its accumulation in the intestine and to extend the duration of unpleasant symptoms.

complications intoxication

Staphylococcal toxin poisoning is usually uncomplicated course and remains without sequelae.Complications can occur in the absence of timely irrigation of the body, especially in people with other diseases. Risk are mainly older people who have multiple diseases simultaneously, and who often have inadequate hydration status. More susceptible to serious complications are young children, especially in infancy.

In intensive poisoning and dehydration can lead to muscle spasms, reducing body temperature below the normal value, and significant reductions in blood pressure can lead to the collapse of the organism.

Other names: from food poisoning, staphylococcal enterotoxicosis poisoning staphylococcal toxin

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