Skin tumors


Skin tumors

Description of skin cancer

Skin tumors include several different types differing in their occurrence, appearance, aggressiveness and prognosis. Skin tumors are relatively frequent in connection with the changed lifestyle of the population, such as the distinctive sun and solarium, their occurrence in recent years is increasing.The most common are three types, according to a growing danger: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma feared. Gets a lot of practice at any age and at any place, but their frequency increases with the age of patients, and most commonly affects the facial area.

Risk factors

Risk factors for penetration of skin cancer are numerous. As with all diseases is one of them, the incidence of these cancers in the family for pokrevných relatives. It is also a phototype: skin cancer are disproportionately more likely to occur in a blond-haired people with light skin that usually never tan, only burn up. For darker types is less risk, and for example in people with black skin is virtually absent basal cell carcinoma. Exposure to sunlight is the most important factor, especially if the person often burn and weakens their skin and it is more susceptible to further damage. In connection with exposure to sunlight it is necessary to mention life at high altitudes or in extremely sunny areas. Risk are some signs, especially at risk are people who have them on the body have a great deal or who have these abnormal signs or changing. Problems with the immune system, of course, also can play a role in the development of skin cancer. As with many other diseases, the incidence of skin tumors increases in the elderly; damage from childhood or youth and can breed up with age. Risk factors are primarily so-called precancerous conditions, which are conditions at which a percentage greater frequency of degeneration in the tumor than in normal.These include solar keratosis (redness rohovějící bearing mainly on the face and hands arising from excessive exposure to sunlight), or leukoplakia (whitish deposit, particularly on the mucous membranes in areas of chronic irritation as prostheses, přikusováním mucosa, but may be irritation of chemicals).

Preventing skin cancer

There are quite effective ways of prevention of skin cancer. Of course some of them may begenetically determined, where the possibility of influencing their formation rather limited, however just these predisposed individuals should be particularly wary. It is necessary to reduce the influence of sunlight on the skin to a minimum. Dangerous is mainly UVB component of this radiation. It is necessary to avoid staying in the sun around noon. On the market there is a large amount of a sunscreen with a very high protection factors that are particularly suited to those necessary for light phototype. Each sunburn to skin is very harmful and increase the risk of any one of skin tumors. Especially older people, where the overall longer the cumulative exposure to sunlight, it is necessary to protect the good example and wearing appropriate clothing andheadwear. Important to protect yourself against the sun is not only the sea on holiday, but alsowhen outputting to the mountains, where the increasing height of the skin is exposed to progressively larger doses of UVB radiation. Experts agree that it is appropriate to use SPF 15 and the normal functioning of the city.

Visits solariums popular with younger people of course can not be recommended.

Another option is to prevent paying attention to any changes in the appearance of my skin.Suspicious and dangerous are mainly flat Clean sign very dark colors and irregular shapes that need to be monitored. To record any changes in color, shape, size, or even in the presence of bleeding is important to quickly find a doctor who examined the finding.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms vary according to the type of skin cancer.

Basal cell carcinoma
squamous
melanoma
Uncommon tumors

Basal cell carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma skin cancer is based on the basal layer of the skin.Its occurrence may be associated with repeated exposure of skin to sunlight, it is not surprising thataffects mainly older people over sixty years of the face, the forehead, nose and ears.Disproportionately is also diagnosed with a blond-haired people with light skin, that is the so-called skin type one. It is relatively common tumor.

Basal cell carcinoma is increasing from the lower area of the skin to the surrounding tissues, which destroys. Can spread either surface, then resembles psoriasis, or even in depth, which can even destroy and cartilage and bone under the affected skin. Sometimes it may be pigmented, in this case it must be distinguished from melanoma. Most basal cell carcinomas appears first as special scab which the patient often swept, after bleeding scab is then formed again. Basal cell carcinoma often have the appearance of a circular bearings perličkovitými pudgy edge and vkleslinou in their midst. On the surface may be initially crust, then the surface gloss and visible are calledtelangiectasia, thus dilated capillaries.

Basal cell carcinoma grows almost exclusively locally and almost never metastasize.

treatment of squamous

For surface basaliomas simply cryotherapy, which is freezing bearing liquid nitrogen. In other types of tumor should be surgically cut out with a scalpel along a thin rim of healthy tissue, for extensive with healthy tissue for sure takes more. Some sites offer the use of a laser, and use a special cream binding tumor cells. Even after removal sometimes may return the tumor, but the vast majority survives pacientů- to 95%. A good prognosis contributed mainly by the fact that thetumor metastasize.

squamous

Squamous cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma is a cancer that is substantially less frequent than basal cell carcinoma. It’s a little more serious, but still not as dangerous as melanoma. Rather arises in midwater skin and destroys the surrounding tissue. Although metastasis occurs, but only very late, mostly in the appropriate lymph nodes. Such as basal cell carcinoma, we are often found among people with light type traits is his frequent presence in, for example,varicose ulcers or scars. It looks like a solid red knot with a damaged surface, it often happen that zvředovatí.

Grows faster than basal cell carcinoma, the course is a little more aggressive, getting deeper into the tissues.

treatment of squamous

Again, treatment is imperative excision, surrounding healthy tissues need to save less than battalion and remove the rim with a width of up to several centimeters. Option is radiation, which is accessed but rather if it is not possible to cut quality.

melanoma

Melanoma is rightly the most feared form of skin cancer and cancer in general actually. It is the most malignant form of skin cancer. It occurs more in women than in men, and it is assumed, as with other tumors that a great influence on the formation of a mainly sunlight. It manifests itself as a mole that looks at first like an ordinary sign, however, it gradually changes occur that indicate his overthrow in a malignant tumor. These changes are mainly its spread into the area, irregular edges, changing color and its inconsistency (a mottled appearance), relief accents vary (usually smooths) can rohovět, scaling out at the slightest damage can spontaneously bleed or ooze. Also, the patient may annoy often fierce itching.

There are several clinical forms, which differ in their signs and dangers. Tumors can spread eitherhorizontally or vertically. Indirectly, therefore, horizontally spreading, we can be further divided into the following types:

Superficial spreading melanoma

Superficial or superficial spreading, constitute the majority of melanomas, it looks like inaccurately bounded, spotted bearing which may be slightly raised. After some time inside depigmentationoccurs, thus lightening and if healing, but it is a very negative sign that points to the already advanced stage and metastasis in distant organs. Therefore, the patient never think that it has already healed, and promptly consult a doctor! Another option is the so-called akrolentiginózní melanoma, which is fortunately very rare, and occurs mainly on the legs and under the nailswhere it gets the patient will notice quite early, but often occur to him that it could be just about melanoma. Unfortunately, the prognosis is unfavorable, so the sooner the patient arrives, the greater the chances of a cure. Furthermore, it has meant lentigo maligna melanoma, also not very common, affecting mainly the elderly in areas exposed to sunlight, such as face, neck, arms and legs.

This type of melanoma surface travels relatively until after years starts spreading downward, so its significantly more favorable prognosis than previous types.

Vertically spreading

Vertically or downwardly spreading melanoma, is very dangerous for several reasons. It has the typical black-blue color, but its diagnosis is often difficult due Indeed mimics a variety of other skin formations, which are not nearly as serious (as senile warts, basal cell carcinoma or different signs). Also, the course is very individual, there is no clear rule by which it is spread, he evolved and progressed, depending mainly on the immune system of the patient. He left to form metastases spreading blood and lymph, metastases may be in different organs and therefore the prognosis is not very bad. They make up about a quarter of all melanomas.

For diagnosis and choice of appropriate treatment according to Breslow use assessment, which evaluates the thickness of the melanoma. The best prognosis have tumors captured at a thickness less than one millimeter, above 4 mm thickness already deteriorating rapidly prognosis and expected survival at 5 years is only fifty percent of patients.

Therapy

The bearing must be surgically cut out, with a sufficient amount of surrounding tissue, to ensure that cancer cells remain here. Also used in chemotherapy and radiotherapy, a radiation, especially in patients with more extensive metastases. Currently used as biological therapy, ie administration such as interferons, the body’s own substances which enhance the immune system to fight the tumor.

Uncommon tumors

Less common types of skin cancer include, for example Kaposi’s sarcoma arising from cells lining the blood vessels affected herpesvirus Kaposi’s sarcoma. Outwardly manifested most often purple to brown tumors, especially of the lower extremities or on the face. It is one of the so-called AIDS defining illnesses, i.e., if it occurs in HIV-positive person is considered that already for a person suffering from established disease AIDS. However, Kaposi’s sarcoma can develop naturally and people who are HIV positive, most frequently, the older men of Mediterranean origin.

Furthermore, it is based cancer Merkel cell, which manifests itself as strong, shiny nodules at or just under the skin and in hair follicles. Color is quite diverse, can be red, pink or even blue and even size may be quite different from half a centimeter to five centimeters in diameter. It occurs mainly in places accessible to the sun, it is the face, the neck and the arms and legs. It is dangerous in that, unlike other tumor grows very rapidly and soon spreads to other body parts.

Another very rare, however, the more aggressive cancer is based on the cells of the sebaceous glands. It looks like a very tough, hard and painless nodes anywhere on the body, but it is a very common localization of the eyelid, which is often erroneously considered as benign útvary- therefore be specifically here to be very careful.

Diagnosis of skin tumors

Doctors often enough to recognize tumor mere glance, but for quality and a certain diagnosis is necessary to remove a piece of suspect tissue, a biopsy. The tissue is then inspected in a laboratory microscope and evaluates the rate of changes thereof. When the suspicion of metastasis, it must undergo a series of other tests

Complication

As with all cancers are significant complications mainly metastases, particularly in melanoma.Melanoma is one of the most aggressive tumors and even metastases occur in various parts of the body very early. Metastasis of course impairs the treatment and thus the prognosis. If there are metastases in the lungs, can lead to respiratory failure. Sad complications in this case is unfortunately quite common death afflicted with late exposed melanoma.

Other Names: skin cancers, skin tumors, skin cancers, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma

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