Description of schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is endogenous psychosis, characterized by a decay of personality particularly affecting the emotional component of the psyche. This mental illness is manifested, for example, disorders of feelings, actions, thoughts and inclinations run away from reality.

These mental symptoms are not particularly rational, coordinated, and thus affected the psyche of the patient may outwardly look ambivalently. People suffering from this disease has on the environment cold, indifferent and dull appearance, often seek solitude and may have a tendency to suicide attempts. Now the cause of the inability of the brain to manage a coordinated processing of perceptions and sensations patient may often sufferfrom hallucinations.

Schizophrenia most commonly occurs in puberty and adulthood.In most cases first became apparent between fifteen and thirty years of age.


Risk factors for schizophrenia

The most common culprits underlying the onset of schizophrenia are genetic predisposition. If your immediate family, there are cases of the disease, the risk of schizophrenia in your descendants higher. For example, if schizophrenia is suffering from one of the parents, for children risk of about 13%. If rozpolcením personality suffers from both parents, the risk to their offspring, but increases to 25%.

On the schizophrenia but also participate in environmental factors. Among these risk factors can sort malnutrition of mothers in the first trimester, low birth weight babies, complications of childbirth (hypoxia – lack of oxygen in newborns), various infections, impaired fetal growth, psychosocial aspects, troubled relationships and stagnant family communication, lack of physical and emotional contact or a difficult childhood.


prevention of schizophrenia

Of schizophrenia we can prevent healthy lifestyle, wellbeing, physical activity, varied diet, lack of tobacco use and alcohol consumption.

In the case of pregnant women and mothers we pay attention to meticulous prenatal and postnatal care for their offspring.

It should not create a family stifling, stressful and challenging environment on the psyche.


Signs and symptoms of schizophrenia

Schizophrenia belong to the group of psychoses, which are characterized in that, for the disease symptoms are diagnosed uniform nor uniform treatment and every patient is unique in its own way.

Schizophrenia is starting to show non-specific complaints such. Shyness, social isolation and antisocial behavior, depressive states, flattening of emotions etc. Then other symptoms may develop suddenly or gradually.

Children can predict schizophrenia, disorders of muscular coordination and motor skills.Children can suffer from increased tension of certain muscle groups and works to numb neighborhood feel. Often they have faulty posture of the hand and fingers, poorly coordinated movements, such as climbing, various games and writing (and thus incredibly “graze” letters to them leaping over the line, do not maintain the slope and size of letters etc.).

The cause of these abnormal manifestations may be increased levels of neurotransmitter (substance that transmits an impulse from one nerve cell to another, mainly active in their contact)dopamine that causes hyperactive function centers thought, perception, memory, and emotion.

The main culprit, however, is known. Prefrontal cortex (gray matter of the brain which is the center of intellectual and association functions and analysis center sensations) that carelessly coordinate activity in each area, and doing so may for the emergence of schizophrenia. The prefrontal cortex is developing especially in the second and last third of puberty, when the neurons grow and create new connections with other neurons. However, if these neurons fail to find new connections, then degenerate (which may explain why schizophrenia occurs mainly in this period of adolescence).

The brain loses its ability to analyze individual perceptions in a coordinated and vice versa create new signals. In addition, elevated levels of dopamine affects the formation of the so-called.Interfering signals that prevent and break down the analysis of perceptions and sensations.

Disabled person does not think clearly-understand, abide by the one idea and directed his thoughts to one specific goal, to concentrate, to think coherently, to recall concepts and events in time and correctly classify etc.

The patient suffers from defects association thinking, emotional blunting, hallucinations anddelusions, and the conclusion is from the environment into their own inner world.

Patients often suffer from auditory and visual hallucinations. These delusions are caused by abnormally functioning prefrontal cortex. It causes the brain can not perceive the image as a whole, but the visual sensation of coming apart at the bewildering mosaic, which is missing a few components of the brain is unable to properly and reasonably filled. Where it occurs, “empty” space, the brain substitutes totally unrealistic elements. For example, a sick place to see black eye sockets, reveal his various glimmers and sparkles like.

Irritation of certain brain centers to awaken memory traces, which spontaneously conjured up, confuse and intertwine.

Mind various distorted and unrealistic perceptions classified in the “real and functional” units. And why are these auditory and visual hallucinations, which suffers from schizophrenia, so authentic and genuine. These delusions can sometimes go so far that the patient’s consciousness like a“shattered” and he can realize himself as one body containing multiple personalities.

Schizophrenia can be divided into several categories, eg. Paranoid schizophrenia, hebefrenic, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual simplex.

The most common form of schizophrenic psychoses paranoid schizophrenia. This is manifested especially auditory, visual, physical, olfactory and gustatory hallucinations. These delusions may be due to stressful situations escalate and may take intrapsychic character, when the patient thinks his ideas are stolen or vice versa, that he is put foreign ideas. The patient can be observedaggressive behavior.

On the contrary, it is a rare type hebefrenic schizophrenia, which is characterized by behavior disorders. The patient is unable to adequately control their behavior (giggles, silly smiles, makes grimaces, repeated phrases, etc.), Think rationally and speak coherently. This form of schizophrenia is not too encouraging prognosis. The affected person loses the ability to decision making and assertiveness, surrendering their goals behaves superficially, shy and retiring.

Another form of catatonic schizophrenia is characterized by psychomotor impairment. For victim exhibits many of these disorders hyperkinesia to rigidity from absolute obedience to negativism etc. The patient may occupy entirely unnatural position for longer periods in them remain.

Undifferentiated schizophrenia contains general criteria and symptoms of this disease, but it can not be clearly classified in the previous types.

Residual Schizophrenia is characterized by psychotic episodes in the past and the presence of many negative symptoms (delayed psychomotor speed, apathy, passivity, loss of initiative, poverty of speech, nonverbal communication and social relationships, neglect of appearance etc.).

Another kind of mental illness is schizophrenia simplex, which is characterized by insidious progression, at which it progresses bizarre behavior, inability to integrate into normal life and society. The patient’s condition is not as clear and unequivocal as in previous psychotic forms of schizophrenia. The affected suffer from hallucinations and operates around brooding, lazy,wandering and neambiciózním impression.

Sometimes, in the aftermath of schizophrenic psychoses, depression embarking postschyzofrenní.When these conditions are sick feelings of absolute hopelessness and anxiety, often thinking of suicide attempt.


treatment of schizophrenia

For the treatment of schizophrenia are used so. Antipsychotic drugs, which are drugs that have a positive impact on mental processes, soothe aggressive and fierce patients suppresses delusions and hallucinations deprive patients.

These drugs have, however, on the other hand, many side effects, e.g. can cause Parkinson’s syndrome, which occurs in up to 80% of patients receiving antipsychotics and is caused by a change in the transport of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain. This side effect is fortunately reversible (reversible) and after dose reduction or discontinuation symptoms usually subside.

Other side effects are represented neuroleptic hypotension (low blood pressure), tachycardia (rapid heart rate), by affecting the endocrine system, psychomotor depression, jaundice (jaundice), tendency to seizures, impaired liver function, constipation, tremor (shaking), etc.

Besides medikamentózního method of therapy are effective in various rehabilitation and biological processes, e.g. shock therapy.

The patient can also help all sorts of psychotherapeutic techniques such as empathy training, positive thinking, assertive communication and exercise of will.

Benefits can also bring psychotherapy that patient leads to a return of the disease and find its origin in his mental condition.


How can I help myself

It is necessary to when the first signs of schizophrenia reduce the effects of other disturbing factors.
Try to eliminate stressful events in the family and close team.

Consume raw material with high iodine content (e.g. sea salt), to avoid disruptions of endocrine glands (endocrine).

Avoid allergens, especially if you cause so. Cerebral allergy and start taking antihistamines (anti-allergy).

Relax and spend enough time sleeping.

Opt for a healthy diet, consume a varied diet rich in fruits and vegetables, pay with physical activities and avoid tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption.


complications of schizophrenia

Complications can occur with the use of antipsychotics, which on the one hand improve the patient’s mental state, but on the other hand, have a variety of side effects, among which include, for example Parkinson’s syndrome, neuroleptic hypotension, tachycardia, psychomotor sedation, jaundice, seizures, constipation, tremor , liver function and endocrine system.

Other names: ambivalence personality, psychosis, paranoid schizifrenie, hebefrenic schizophrenia, catatonic schizophrenia, simplex schizophrenia, residual schizophrenia, undifferentiated schizophrenia

Share your experience: