Description rubella

Rubella belongs to the group of typical pediatric infectious diseases. Transferring is called. Rubeola virus, and droplet route of infection (air) as well as influenza and childhood diseases such as measles and chickenpox.

Rubella virus belongs to the group. Togaviruses, which are among exanthema viruses. Exanthema viruses cause illness accompanied by rashes, such as scarlet fever, measles or chickenpox.

Rubella is showing a reddish rash: first in the face, and later on the trunk and on the whole body.

Furthermore, swollen lymph nodes, like mumps, especially on the neck and behind the ears.

The course of the disease itself is not serious, it is often impossible to distinguish from other diseases characterized by rash, with some patients (especially for adults) pass without symptoms, asymptomatic. If a person undergoes once the disease, the body produces enough antibodies to rubella so that in future no longer be sick, like smallpox.


prevention of rubella

Perhaps the biggest bogeyman, as far as rubella virus is high teratogenic (ie. The ability to kill or harm a developing fetus), and therefore it is very dangerous for pregnant women, especially in the third month of pregnancy. For this reason, in the Czech Republic since 1982 began with a preventive vaccine, first, twelve-year old girls, and since 1986 all children after the second year of life.

Today seeded in combination, together with measles and mumps.

Therefore, today is one of rubella among rare disease in women virtually disappeared. For example, in the United States since the beginning of universal vaccination of rubella virus managed to completely eradicate from society, the situation is more problematic in developing countries where nationwide preventive vaccination is often still not been implemented.

As with other childhood infectious diseases, before the discovery of the vaccine antibodies establish a regular vaccination, measles outbreaks occurred in which once affected a larger population group.It is reported that in the last 150 years have been fatal rubella up to 200,000 people. Virus could be isolated in 1954, nine years later they began publishing the world’s first vaccine against the disease.


Signs and symptoms of rubella

The course of the disease from one case quite different. The most typical symptom is a red rashoccurring over the body, mostly on the face and torso. Rash on the legs is not so obvious and appears on the last. In the same order too rash subsides. Most often in the form of small red dotshaving a size of 1-5 mm.

Furthermore, the disease is accompanied by inflammation of the upper airways through which the virus spreads. Sometimes they are accompanied by conjunctivitis and rubella. Symptoms associated with inflammation of the upper respiratory tract are common in pediatric patients. In adult patients, on the contrary, we meet with symptoms such as joint pain, less often with meningitis.

Rarely, rather adolescent patients may experience problems such as headache or chills.

Furthermore, there are enlarged occipital nodules that may not be painful to palpation. Another symptom of the disease accompanying fever, which can, in extreme cases reach up to čtyřicetistupňovým fevers, sometimes but again, not everybody at all. Average temperature does not exceed 38.5 ° C.

The incubation period is from two to three weeks. Sick is infectious to their surroundings before the appearance of the rash and it is about one week after its occurrence. After this period, the patient is no longer contagious.


treatment rubella

Due to the usually modest disease course unnecessary in most cases indicated by a special treatment. Treatment is usually based only on precipitation of fever, rash or treatments that may unpleasantly itch. It is important to monitor the patient’s contact with pregnant women.


complications of rubella

Complications of the disease are rather scarce. They can occur encephalitis and meningitis or temporary disturbance of blood formation.

With several weeks apart from an illness, and more frequently in adult patients may experience complications such as pain and inflammation of joints.

Congenital rubella syndrome
As already described above, the main danger lies in their rubella hazard to the developing fetus.Prodělá- If a pregnant woman this disease in the first trimester of pregnancy, it is an indication for abortion.

Danger to the unborn child is greater the earlier in pregnancy a woman becomes infected. Children with known. Congenital rubella (rubella harm their fetus still in the mother’s body) often havehearing loss or eye (cataracts, retinal damage), heart disease, also known cases of underdeveloped brain and related psychomotor defects.

Defects of this type can often come up long after birth. Therefore, pregnant women suspected of having the disease should consult a doctor. Conversely, people who are undergoing rubella, should try to avoid contact with pregnant women.

Other names: German measles

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