Pneumothorax


Pneumothorax

Description pneumothorax

The notion of pneumothorax represents the entry of air into the chest, the space between the pleura and pleura. This space, technically called pleural (pleural) cavity, which is normally closed and find in it a vacuum. In the event of a breach of integrity is compensated vacuum in the chest cavity to atmospheric pressure, lung collapses and ceases to participate in breathing.

Cause pneumothorax

Most people think of the word pneumothorax present thanks to action films wounded man with a hole in the chest (preferably a bullet). Their perception is partial – there is pneumothorax open, closed and Valve. Enclosed is defined as a single entry of air into the pleural cavity, a hole is then immediately closed and further communication with the external environment does not occur. Toopen pneumothorax is characterized by constant communication between the pleural cavity and the outside environment. Valve or valve pneumothorax is such that when the blow somewhat open when you inhale and the exhale closes. Piece torn tissue prevent exit of air that accumulates in the pleural cavity and continues to push the mediastinum to the healthy side. It is much more dangerous than an open pneumothorax.

It is interesting that before intentionally caused a pneumothorax used to treat tuberculosis and other lung infections.

Risk factors for pneumothorax

Pneumothorax further distinguish spontaneous injury (traumatic) and iatrogenic. Spontaneousarises mostly as a result of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis. It can also occur in young university boys who incidence of pneumothorax in the family.Traumatic pneumothorax occurs puncture the chest, throat and bronchial injuries or due to fractures of the ribs. The iatrogenic pneumothorax occurs when invasive tests, which include, for example, acupuncture, spinal fuck, subclavian vein catheterization, chest puncture or transparietal aspiration biopsy.

Patients with Marfan syndrome have an increased risk of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax.

symptoms of pneumothorax

For the victim is most common chest pain, cough and respiratory problems. We can also follow clearly frothy blood flowing from the wound. One other symptom is the sound of escaping air.

When meshing pneumothorax is present paleness, cyanosis, tachycardia (increased heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure).

For pneumothorax on the left may cause similar symptoms as for coronary events.

The treatment of pneumothorax

Open pneumothorax calls for a rapid first aid. Arises puncture the chest wall by stabbing, gunshot wound or other blunt injuries. The situation is usually this: wounded breathes only one lung and leads to external or thoracic bleeding.

First aid

  • We are trying to reassure the victim to breathe regularly as possible. Settle him into Fowler’s position semisitting with fitted backs (only if there is suspicion of other injuries – for example the abdomen).
  • The most important step in the treatment is a dressing poloprodyšného fabrication of two layers.We cover the wound with a sterile dressing in the form of a square bandage. The first layer is secured on an impermeable layer of plastic. Square plastic glue strip patch only on three sides. The bottom side of the nezalepuje so that blood can drain freely and air will escape from the pleural cavity.For inexperienced guy is not easy to create a functional poloprodyšný dressing, it is advisable to make a fully-tight bandage, which sealed with all four sides.
  • If we have to save the victim in the recovery position, which we consider always the injured party down. In case we save it so that it lay on the uninjured side, there would be impaired breathing healthy lungs. If the patient goes into shock, we store it in the shock position (on your back, legs lifted about 30 cm).
  • Of course there is a call professional help as soon as possible.
  • When no or insufficient breathing, we must start mouth-to-mouth and heart massageaccording to the principles of first aid.
  • Foreign body from the wound never not draw, or it can be fixed in the wound.

Simple spontaneous pneumothorax not be treated within a few days, the air is absorbed and thereby unfolds and cheeks. To accelerate the development of the lungs can be used oxyhenoterapii or suction air thoracic puncture. Spontaneous pneumothorax larger scale is required medullar, meaning gradually suck air at low pressure. Most life threatening tension pneumothorax and accordingly action is required. First, pressure is reduced between the pleura and pleura exhausting the air in the puncture needle 2.mezižebří, followed by drainage of the chest.

Valve pneumothorax was expertly converted to open strong puncture needle.

complications pneumothorax

The immediate complications include compressive pneumothorax, bilateral pneumothorax, hemothorax and pnemo-mediastinum.

Compressive pneumothorax is a very serious problem where the air can not escape during exhalation as usual because it will produce a check valve mechanism. Increasing pressure compresses the lung and heart.

On both lungs leads to bilateral pneumothorax. It is required chest tube drainage and suction of air from both pleural cavities.

If you adhere to each other and pleura pleura, and one of them breaks when pneumothorax occurshaemothorax. In the pleural cavity bleeding occurs.

In the case that air pneumothorax disrupt tissue mediastinum, it is a pneumo-mediastinum.

Other names: PNO, PNX

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