Pneumoconiosis


Pneumoconiosis

Description of pneumoconiosis

They are professional lung diseases which arise mineral dust inhalation into the lungs. This dust causes a reaction lung cells and increased production of tissue (lung fibrotisation). Its consequence is a disorder of the lungs and breathing problems.These are typical occupational diseases. There are a multitude of pneumoconiosis, according to the type of inhaled mineral.

Their basic division is on the non-collagenous pneumoconiosis, and collagen. Non-collagen type is moderate, occur here only slight formation of connective tissue and therefore does not cause health problems. Example is Antracoză (lung dust coal dust). The second type of collagenous pneumoconiosis, which cause excessive formation of connective tissue of the lung and other health problems. The most dangerous type is silicosis, which is a harmful factor silicon dust. It affects workers who are with him come into contact (glass cutters, miners etc.). Other hazardous agents are asbestosis (asbestos inhalation), talkózy (inhaled magnesium silicate), berylliosis (beryllium fluoride) and many others.

When it gets molecule such as silicon dioxide to the lungs, remain in the alveoli and respiratory system is not able to remove. For this reason, here they arrive pulmonary macrophages. They are immune system cells that ingest (phagocytose) various particles and try to destroy them.Unfortunately, in case of ingestion, crystal silica is unable to process and macrophages diverted various molecules (cytokines etc.) that cause inflammation in place and stimulate the fibroblasts, the cells that produce connective tissue. Connective tissue nodules recalls, so she called nodular (nodules), fibrosis of the lungs. In the case of asbestosis are particles of asbestos fibers, which also cause fibrosis and may cause lung cancer or pleural (the membrane that surrounds the lungs and chest cavity).

In terms of the speed of progression can be divided into collagenous pneumoconiosis, chronic that develops 15 to 20 years. The patient is exposed to smaller amounts of particles and it takes a long time to cause symptoms. Accelerated (accelerated) pneuomokoniózy take place from 5 to 10 years. Very dangerous are acute types that generate less than two years and often ends in death.

Risk factors of pneumoconiosis

An important risk factor are spaces where dust is present, which contains the relevant minerals (silica, asbestos, magnesium silicate, beryllium fluoride and many others). Therefore, the risk professions include glass cutters, miners, workers in mines, quarries etc.). There are also threatened by people who come into contact with asbestos. And when it was mined or even in the handling of certain asbestos products (asbestos, brake linings).

prevention of pneumoconiosis

Important is to prevent contact with dust containing the above mentioned molecules. Very often used method at these workplaces are exposed to water sprays to prevent inhalation of contaminated dust. Furthermore, they can be used various kinds of filters. At the workplace, it is required to wear protective equipment to prevent inhalation of contaminated air.

Signs and symptoms of pneumoconiosis

Subjective symptoms are shortness of breath and a dry cough. Additionally it can be up to fatigue exhaustion which is caused by lack of oxygen and debilitating cough. Breath victim is a fast and troublesome. Patients lose their appetite, they may have a fever and chest pain. In advanced stages, it appears cyanosis. It is a bluish skin, lips, oral mucosa and nail beds due to insufficient blood oxygenation. Furthermore, it is overloaded right part of the heart which has problems to pump blood to the affected lung and exacerbate poor oxygenation.

diagnosis of pneumoconiosis

Very important is the medical history of the patient, which can detect exposure to risk factors.Physical examination will reveal abnormal sounds during breathing, a dry cough and changes in the lungs. Very important is the X-ray of the heart and lungs with which we can detect lung fibrosis and overloading the right side of the heart. In the case of asbestosis are very important early discoveries of changes in the pleura (pleura). For a very detailed view of the lung using CT(computed tomography). Beneficial function testing is spirometry, which we find functional lung capacity (how much the patient can inhale and exhale air and other data). When disability is pneumoconiosis, this value is reduced.

The treatment of pneumoconiosis

Pneumoconiosis are incurable diseases. They will only treat the symptoms and try to prevent complications. First, it is important to avoid further exposure to contaminated dust and completely quit smoking, which only exacerbates the whole disease. Of the drugs are administered antitussives (cough), antibiotics and antituberotika because the damaged lungs are easier to attack infectious germs. It is also important to perform breathing exercises with physiotherapist support, which can help with expectoration of phlegm. In advanced disease is administered oxygen (oxygen administration) to prevent the oxygen deficiency in the circulation.Often also used bronchodilators are drugs that enhance the bronchi and facilitate inhale and exhale.An example might be a drug salbutamol. As we have already mentioned, pneumoconiosis are progressing incurable disease, so the last hope of the patient’s lung transplant. If for complications also damaged hearts, it is necessary to transplant him as well. Unfortunately, transplants are very dangerous and have many complications and side effects.

How can I help treat pneumokinóz

It is very important to avoid dust containing the aforementioned substance. If it professionally is not possible, then it is necessary to use protective equipment that eliminates the negative effect. It is essential to completely quit smoking, that all the disease worsens and accelerates.Unfortunately, there are patients who do not respect it and ignore it.

complications of pneumoconiosis

Among the most frequent complications include pneumonia. In damaged lungs that cilia are not working with a cleaning function is very easy to get an infectious agent. In healthy lungs would most likely be disposed of by the immune system, but it is unfortunately also violated. Patients are therefore more susceptible to tuberculosis of the lungs, which are important to the phagocytic cells (macrophages), of which we mentioned earlier. Macrophages absorb crystals such as silicon dioxide, and they are harmed. And consequently lacking in the fight against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative tuberculosis.

Serious complications are lung tumors. Among malignant (cancerous) types include lung cancer,which is very difficult to treat. It is important to find and retrieve it in time with the support of chemotherapy. Another cancer that can occur as mesothelioma. It is a malignant tumor of the pleura (pleura), which surrounds the lungs and lines the chest cavity. This tumor is typical for long exposure to asbestos. Unfortunately, very poorly treated. If it is discovered in time and allow its surgical removal, the patient is almost won. Unfortunately, it has often not treated and the palliative chemotherapy and radiation treatments that can prolong life. Despite intensive treatment the patients nedožívají more than 12 months.

If you are already badly affected lung may occur respiratory failure and right heart failure. In case of respiratory insufficiency are lungs capable of removing all of the carbon dioxide and to obtain the necessary amount of oxygen. This in turn affects all the organs in the body and can result in a total disruption of the body. As there is a new connective tissue in the lungs (fibrotisation), changing the pulmonary vasculature. Respectively, increases the resistance of blood flow and the right part of the heart is much more stressed. First the heart adapts and operates with greater intensity. Later, however, it is constant overloading affected and may start to fail, which greatly worsens the prognosis of the patient.

Other names: Dusting lung, silicosis, asbestosis, berylliosis, talkóza, Antracoză, siderosis, black lung, filthy lungs

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