Plague


Plague

Description plague

Although the name of the plague in the past figuratively used generally for various infectious diseases, which caused an epidemic with serious consequences for the population, the plague is in fact a serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. This bacterium survives in the digestive tract of the rat flea – Xenopsylla cheopis, because there is a transmission of the disease during propagation flea-infested rodents around human dwellings.

In the past took place in Europe for several plague epidemics in the Czech Republic that there were three major epidemic, which claimed many human victims. The most devastating of these was epidemic in the mid-14th century, which wiped out up to half the then population. Another plague then occurred here in the 17th and 18th centuries, and in each of them fell victim to the hundreds of thousands of people. From this period also comes plague columns, which gave residents built as a thanksgiving to God for the end of epidemic diseases.

 

Risk factors for plague

Currently plague occurs only in several endemic areas where they are staying its natural přenašeči- Rat. These are the main areas of steppes and forests, while it occurs in both tropical and the cold zone. Human infections are already sporadic cases were reported from North Africa, India, Mongolia, South Siberia, but also the United States.

Bacteria gets into the body mostly at flea sting humans. Fleas is sucking the blood of rats transmit disease to them, then dying rats and fleas move to feed on humans. This transfer gives rise to the most common form onemocnění- glandular or bubonický plague (Bubo = abscess).

Transmission of the disease but may also take place by droplet infection (inhalation million tiny droplets containing the bacteria and expectorated ill). To induce disease in the recipient, in this case simply accepted only several hundred bacteria. This creates a pulmonary form of plague (Black Death), which was probably the cause of death of most of the population during epidemics.Pulmonary form, however, may develop during treatment and a lack of tuber forms of the disease.

 

prevention of plague

Building a sewer system in the 18th century, a significant degree contribute to ending the last major epidemic in our countries and to prevent the recurrence of it. There is a reduction in the incidence of rats around human dwellings. Today is the basis of preventive measures thoroughdisinfection and disinfestation places of residence.

Against plague vaccine There are two vaccines that are recommended for use by persons with an increased risk of infection (medical staff in areas with endemic plague workers microbiological laboratories). One type of vaccine is composed of dead bacteria Y. pestis has however only short and not very high effect. The second vaccine comprises live bacteria devoid of ability to cause disease, but left open ability to induce the formation of antibodies and enhancement of cellular immunity against the disease.

The patient has been infected by the plague must be isolated from their surroundings, to prevent further spread of the disease, and is also essential in the disinfestation. Staff must be attending in the prevention of special protective equipment, and also used antibiotics (tetracycline).

 

symptoms of plague

After stabbing fleas is to develop the disease within 2-6 days. Suddenly appear high fever,headache, extremities, abdomen. The bacteria that get into the wound, they are engulfed by immune cells, which is entered in the next draining lymph nodes (usually in the groin or armpit). In these bacteria multiply and nodes to respond to severe inflammation in which enormously increases, up to the size of an orange. Thus, enlarged lymph nodes may break and create open wounds from which blood flows dark liquid.

If nodules burst, or are artificially opened leads to their gradual healing, and the patient has a chance of survival.

Most patients, however, leads to penetration of bacteria from lymphoid tissue into the blood, through which can enter the lungs and this leads to the formation of a Secondary pulmonary form plague,which is always fatal.

The presence of bacteria in the blood causes a septic forms of plague. Septicemic plague but also may develop without magnification nodes. Such a course occurs particularly in individuals with poor immune status. Speeches are very dramatické- there is a rapid drop in blood pressure, collapse. It also appears bleeding into the skin and mucosa due to formation of so-called disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), in which the first precipitation occurs inside the blood vessels, resulting in stocks platelets and subsequent unstoppable bleeding. Bleeding into the skin is reflected coinciding puce flecks of color throughout the body.

Septic form of plague always leads to death of the patient.

Pulmonary form of plague causes a sudden rise in temperature, dyspnea, due to insufficient oxygenation of blood the patient has a blue colored lips and skin (cyanosis). Patients with severe pain coughing up a highly infectious blood or black-colored phlegm.

The overall behavior of the patient is also reformulated can not sleep, or vice versa, is lethargic,sleepy, may be delirious. Sometimes it also appears gastrointestinal bleeding, as reflected vomiting krve- fresh red or digested that looks like coffee grounds. Also, it can appear as a fresh outflow of blood from the rectum or leaving mushy, tarry black and foul-smelling stools.

As a result of problems with blood flow (blood clotting within the blood vessels leads to clogging) occurs necrosis fingertips and earlobes (acral necrosis), resulting in their loss of blackening and sensitivity.

 

treatment of plague

Mor had in the past, before the discovery of antibiotics, one hundred percent mortality. Today, with early treatment, the percentage of deaths is much lower, but still remains one of the deadliest diseases ever.

Diagnosis of the disease is based on the cultivation of bacteria from blood or pus broken lymph nodes. However, as the result of a culture of evaluation are known at 2-3 days, treatment is initiated immediately upon suspicion of plague infection.

Two days without treatment in this disease is likely to result in death of the patient.

To cure the plague are administered high doses of antibiotics, especially streptomycin. During his intolerance can take doxycycline of the tetracycline group, when bacteria penetrate the brain wellchloramphenicol.

After a history of venous disease arises good immunity, which protects the patient prior to re-infection.

 

How can I help myself

The plague can not be cured differently than antibiotics, the patient must be as soon as medical emergencies.

 

complications plague

When infected with plague are looking for speed initiation of therapy, otherwise a wholly diseasemortality.

We can say that the complications of the disease is the formation of secondary pulmonary plague and septic. Death sucks in pulmonary forms due to the development of pulmonary edema and subsequent suffocation with a patient.

In septic form results in septic shock with circulatory failure and hence the vital organs.

Other names: Black Death, the bubonic plague, the Great Plague, glandular plague, bubonic plague, bubonic plague, septicemic plague, abortive plague, pneumonic plague

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