Phobias and anxiety disorders

Phobias and anxiety disorders

Description phobias and anxiety disorders

Anxiety disorders are among the so-called. Neurotic disordersthat manifest expression of pathological anxiety and fear. We belong to various forms of phobias and other anxiety disorders then, among which include, eg, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder.

Anxiety disorders are the most common mental disorders in developed countries and affects up to ¼ of the population. With some exaggeration, we can say that anxiety has become a symbol of the 21st century.

Anxiety disorders are classified as phobic anxiety disorders, among which include, eg, agoraphobia(fear of open spaces), social phobia and other phobias; and anxiety disorders, which include panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder.

Angst or fear of experiencing a mild form of each of us. Anxiety is defined as an unpleasant emotional state without a clearly defined cause. Fear contrast describe as emotional and physiological response to the expected danger and lasts only for the duration of this danger. Under Norman circumstances, these two states irreplaceable protection and information purposes.Protect and warn individuals of the impending danger. But they may acquire such intensity that we are talking about anxiety disorders, which are ranked among psychiarická disease. Since it is a neurotic disorder, is not affected by the distorted perception of reality (as opposed to psychotic disorders, among which include, eg, schizophrenia), and therefore the patient is well aware of the absurdity and vystupňovanost their feelings. However, unable to face Tente feelings and control them. Often, therefore, they are exposed to the everyday life of the affected individual, and it is then reflected in his interpersonal, work and relationships.

Patients with this disorder are described accompanying symptoms both psychological (feeling of unease, all sorts of feelings of fear – such as the death of losing control of maddening) and symptoms of physical (rapid pulse, palpitations, sweating, difficulty breathing, pain, feeling nausea or vomiting). These symptoms always accompanies a specific situation that the patient will avoid time and already at the thought of this situation got out of it feelings of anxiety and fear.

Causes phobias and anxiety disorders

Until recently it was assumed that after the emergence of anxiety disorders stands mainly psychological causes. There are several theories to describe this creation. These include dynamic theory which ascribes the greatest importance to the events of early childhood or adolescence.

Another theory is called. Cognitive-behavioral, which emphasizes the importance of the needs strong links with a close person during stressful situations. As an example, anxiety disorder in adulthood, which may have some basis of anxiety experienced by a child, when in stressful situations (such as boarding schools) was not present neither of the parents. According to the theory existancionální individual is aware of his mortality and the essence of its existence and logical response to this awareness is the feeling of fear and anxiety.

Recently, however, pointed out to a number of somatic factors are involved in causing anxiety disorder. One of these factors is undoubtedly inheritance when related disability increases the risk of disease. A further demonstrated an increased incidence of anxiety disorder in individuals with different vascularisation certain brain areas.

Overall, we can say that the creation of an anxiety disorder involving both biologic and psychosocial. The importance of individual factors determines the severity and type of anxiety disorder.

Symptoms of anxiety disorders and phobias

Since the diagnosis of anxiety disorders and phobias therein zahruje several subunits is impossible Posat uniform signs and symptoms of the disease.

Let us, however, at least those represented most cases. These are: agoraphobia, which is called. The fear of large spaces (meaning is derived from the Greek origin and literally means fear of the marketplace). The most common manifestation is afraid to be in crowds, public places or anxious feeling of leaving home. A typical problem for patients with this disorder, for example, the use of public transport means, stay in department stores, restaurants and other social facilities. In the most severe cases, the victim is then tied to the domestic environment and the company is able to remove only the accompaniment of a loved one.

Other diagnostic unit falling between anxiety disorders include social phobia. People affected by this type of anxiety disorder have a fear of contact with other people. For them it is a problem, for example, introductions, calls, receiving visitors or mluený speech in public. These situations cause the affected aforementioned accompanying psychological and physical symptoms. It is necessary, however, this form of anxiety disorder distinguishable from extreme shyness, which does not require psychiatric treatment.

Among anxiety disorders are also known. Panic disorder, whose main feature is repeated záchavaty massive anxiety (panic). These seizures are not preceded by any specific situation, but suddenly arise. They are almost always accompanied by feelings of breathlessness, chest pain and dizziness. It is also a common fear of death or of going mad. All these symptoms can lead to misdiagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. ECG but show no change and therefore the patient is reassured by the doctor and sent home. However, if these situations are repeated, it should be thought of diagnosis of anxiety disorder.

Finally, it is ranked among anxiety disorders and mixed anxiety-depressive disorder. Which is also often referred to as the general neurotic syndrome. This disease includes chronic anxiety, panic attacks and occasional prolonged depressive disorders. For the treatment of this disorder, the same rules as for other anxiety disorders.

The following table lists the most common names of specific phobias:

specific phobia Fear of…
acrophobia heights
aichmophobia sharp objects
Ailurofobie cats
androphobia men
Aquafobie waters
Bakteriofobie bacteria
Kynofobie dogs
Gynofobie women
Claustrophobia closed spaces
Logofobie words
Ofidofobie snakes
Photophobia lights
Pyrofobie fires
Troskaidefobie numbers 13
Xenophobia foreigners

Treatment of anxiety disorders and phobias

As with all psychiatric disorders, modern medicine for anxiety disorders, pharmacological and psychological treatment. The most effective method of treatment is to combine both of these possibilities.

Pharmacological treatment offers nowadays few specimens ranking among the two groups of drugs. The first of these substances from the anxiolytics which are called. “Medications for anxiety.”These drugs should be administered per day, but the short term (up to several weeks). There is a strong likelihood of addiction. A number of these preparations name at least alprazolam and clonazepam.

The second group are antidepressants which are also very beneficial effect in combating anxiety conditions. There is no dependency and they are therefore much “safer” drug. Their effect, however, starts only after several weeks, and it is therefore medications strategy chosen as follows: anxiolytics are prescribed in the first weeks of treatment, on overcoming anxiety. The long-term therapy are not used antidepressants.

Pharmacological treatment should, however, be accompanied by a psychological therapy and that is when the so-called anxiety disorders. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). This procedure helps the patient navigate in a given problem. Gives a preview of that situation zpouští anxiety, alleviate or worsen. Teach a patient with these situations work effectively addressed and work on the discomfort subsided. This therapy is very logical, systematic and easily understandable for the patient. The only problem today, however, remains the lack of qualified specialists working with this method.

How can I help myself

Since this is a psychiatric disorder that can develop and worsen, it is very important to consult a doctor psychiatrist at first feeling that “something is wrong”. Treatment of this disease is in fact very successful and the body burden, if initiated early.

Complications phobias and anxiety disorders

Complications of anxiety disorders are presented primarily affected more difficulties with socialization and the danger of depressive syndrome.

Other names: panic disorder, panic disorder

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