Phlebitis


Phlebitis

Description phlebitis

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the body circulation back to the heart. The magazine, in which it is located about two-thirds of the total volume of blood is very important especially in the case of bleeding. Indeed able to offset losses up to one quarter of the total blood volume.

Although veins have the same number of layers as arteries, but the wall is much weaker. Therefore, the flow rate of blood in the veins slower and lower blood pressure. The lower limbs are for facilitating the flow of blood to the heart are present valves that prevent backflow of blood.

Phlebitis is a disease in which the slowing down of venous outflow, damage to the vein wall and thrombus formation.

They are most commonly affected lower limb, especially when a person is confined to bed for several days. The blood from the lower limbs is pumped through the heart and skeletal muscles in his legs inactivation slowing venous return and subsequent complications.

Upper limbs, the disease occurs most often as a result of intravenous injections.

Phlebitis may have two different forms. By place of occurrence is divided into superficial veins (thrombophlebitis) and inflammation of the deep venous system (thrombosis).

Thrombophlebitis inflammatory process affects the superficial veins and often accompaniesvaricose veins (varices). It can be further divided to form infectious arising intrusion of bacteria and noninfectious, irritation related to venous endothelium. Noninfectious thrombophlebitis may occur as a result of trauma or medical procedure (cannulation, sclerotherapy, intravenous injection, …).

Thrombosis disease is much more severe, because it leads to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) that may cause up to a pulmonary embolism. Annually, the disease affects the Czech Republic, about 15 000 to 20 000 people.

 

Risk factors for phlebitis

Condition of a inflammatory disorders of veins is to slow blood flow and blood clotting.

The thrombosis can be met even in very young people because of excessive blood clotting may be due to a genetic disorder.

Another reason is formation damage the vessel wall after surgery, accidents, in cancers, as well as the use of different drugs.

Further, it may be one of the complications of obesity, pregnancy, immobilization bed, stroke, myocardial infarction, elevated venous exertion etc.

Special, but relatively common risk factor is a long trip (ie. A travel thrombosis). With the development of the transport industry is increasingly clogging the deep veins of the lower extremities blood clot. The risk lies in the long-term inactivity of the lower limbs and inability to change position. A serious complication can be torn off thrombus into the bloodstream and clogging the lungs.

Phlebitis suffer very often pregnant women in the second half of pregnancy. It is closely related to the fact that these women begin to foot, in outer genitals and around the anus create varices. In pregnancy, because lower voltage vein walls that impede venous outflow, together with the pressure of the uterus. After birth, we must avoid the risk of thromboembolic disease.

Risky professions terms phlebitis are indicated occupations where spend many hours of the feet.E.g. hairdressers, shop assistants, dentists, etc.

Higher incidence of this disease is also associated with age. Greater risk is affected in people older than 50 years.

 

Prevention of phlebitis

Effective prevention is to maintain a reasonable body weight and regular exercise at least a few minutes a day.

It is also recommended to avoid tobacco products and when long do more breaks to small warming up or walk. Even if you have a longer time confined to bed, you should not keep quiet at 100%. It is important for at least one hour of exercise your legs and improve circulation of blood towards the heart.

Expectant mothers should avoid working longer standing and exercise regularly throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period.

 

Signs and symptoms of phlebitis

Thrombophlebitis is characterized by redness and hardening of the veins in the area of injury.This location tends to be warmer than the surrounding skin and quite painful to the touch. Skin near often itch, but there is never any swelling of the entire limb.

Thrombosis as the main identification sign just swelling, pain and increased volume of venous or extremities turning blue (cyanosis).

Plucks If the thrombus is reached, and to the lungs, pulmonary embolism occurs. This condition will manifest shortness of breath, chest pain, cough, and a drop in blood pressure. Then develop shock and shortly afterwards leads to death.

 

Diagnosis phlebitis

The disease can be quite easy to diagnose if the patient is willing to cooperate. Very important are the medical history, during which the doctor asks for a similar illness in the family, surgical procedures, varicose veins, oral contraceptives, heart disease, and whether the patient smokes.

Examination involves palpation of swelling (if present), determining pain, blood collection and optionally accesses any of imaging techniques, e.g. ultrasound.

 

Treatment of phlebitis

For Superficial vein affected extremity downloads elastic bandage, and the patient is indicatedwalk. The affected area is cooled by cold compresses and rubbed anti-inflammatory ointments. In the event that the current increase in body temperature, it is necessary to deploy the antibiotictreatment, respectively. anti-clotting. Thrombophlebitis usually subside within a few days, induration may persist for some time yet.

In the case of inflammation of deep venous therapy is already far more complicated and requires hospitalization and monitoring. In addition to bandaging the lower limbs are administered blood thinners (anticoagulants). Eg. Heparin, warfarin, and in the case of larger blood clots should commence treatment with thrombolytics.

At the beginning of treatment is needed bed rest with raised legs (for better drainage of blood) and after a few days, on the contrary, active movement to accelerate blood circulation and prevent blood clots.

Only in case of very large tromboflebóz affecting large vein, the approach to surgery.

 

How can I help myself

If you suspect an inflammation of the veins, see a doctor immediately, because every second can make decisions about your life.

 

Complications of phlebitis

The most common complication is mentioned several times already pulmonary embolism.Thrombus torn from the lower extremities travels to the right heart and then into the pulmonary arteries, which clogs.

Another complication may be post-thrombotic syndrome, which occurs several months. The probability of its occurrence depends on the age of the patient, the extent of venous thrombosis, its localization and therapy. Its cause is permanently increased venous pressure which will cap venous insufficiency or venous valves. One of the symptoms of post-thrombotic syndrome is swelling of the limbs. In the most serious cases, it is sometimes necessary to proceed to amputation.

Other names: thrombophlebitis, thrombophlebitis, phlebitis, phlebitis, thrombosis, venous thrombosis

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